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December, 1937 • Amekican Cinematographer 489
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490 American Cinematographer • December, 1937
A Technical and Educational publication
on motion picture photography.
Published monthly by the
OF CINEMATOGRAPHERS, INC.
1782 N. Orange Drive
Hollywood (Los Angeles), California
Telephone GRanite 2136
VICTOR MILNER, President.
FRED W. .JACKMAN, Treasurer.
Vol. 18 December, 1937 No. 12
Front Cover. Scene from MGM’s “Conquest”
Just Between Turkeys 492
By Georg-e Blaisdell
What 1937 Has Shown in Technical
Cooperation Bulks Big in Work of
By Perc Westmore
A. S. C. Members on Parade 497
Big Scenes in Goldwyn’s “Hurricane”. 498-9
Color Real Advantage Shooting Steel
By Charles P. Boyle, A.S.C.
Soviet Working on New Stereoscopic
By V. Solyev
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numbers, 40c. COPYRIGHT, 1937, by American
Society of Cinematographers, Inc.
Reed N. Haythorne, A. S. C.
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December, 1937 • American Cinematographer 491
ANNUAL TOPICS INDEX
Volume XVIII, 1937
Advanced technique of lighting on
Agfa is settling in new building: 414.
Agfa's fundamentally new type of
infra-red film: 96.
Agfa's new three color process: 50.
Aid of foreign officials vital: 274.
Air photography: 190.
Arnold again heads Cinematogra-
Arnold given gold life card by
A.S.C. members on parade: 12; 56;
98; 140; 184; 240; 286; 326; 370;
416; 461; 502.
A.S.C. moves into new home: 5.
A.S.C. opens new home: 136.
As midnight sounds: 177.
Attacking the problem of color
Believe new camera makes eclipse
Bi-focal lens system for optical ef-
Big scenes in Goldwyn's "Hurricane":
Blue ribbon for R.K.O.: 180.
By the sounding sea (editorial): 405.
Canty joins Universal: item, 192.
Chemistry's work told by Morrison:
Color: 6; 50; 186; 230; 234; 273; 315;
Color real advantage shooting steel
Color student will find best guidance
in nature: 315.
Cooperation bulks big in work of
Convention, A great: 228.
Council may change projector aper-
Crane goes with Charney: - item, 192.
Cronjager, Edward, personality story:
Dallmeyer issues booklet: item, 195.
Death of Ernest Cousin: 191.
Device for producing variable diffu-
sion effects: 52.
Dodd tells of new sun spot: 134.
Eastman announces production of
quality dupe and negative: 323.
Editorials: 5; 49; 89; 131; 177; 228;
272 ; 315; 358; 405; 449.
Effects: 10; 52; 96; 328.
Engineers hold convention in New
Engineers hold Hollywood meet on
May 24 to 28: 194.
Engineers see pictures made at Uni-
Equipment: 142; 188; 318; 320; 325;
Erickson describes triple 5 spot: 238.
Film: 96; 323; 360.
Film editing: 318; 360.
Film is more valuable in television:
Film exports gain ten million feet
over previous year: item, 101.
First movies really were ''stupen-
Frost is on the punkin': 449.
Gaudlo, Tony, wins camera honors:
Germans make gains: 377.
Great convention, A: 228.
Hessercolor is all set to enter still
High screen efficiency reflector and
background screen: 53.
Hittin' the trail: 131.
How color was made at last corona-
How lighting units are developed
How one cinematographer secures va-
riable diffusion: 328.
India's picture men faced by handi-
Industry pays glowing tribute to
Adolph Zukor: 49.
Infra-red film: 96.
Jackman returns to business: 137.
Jones develops focus shift for B-H
Just breaking in: 89.
Keg-lite aims once started to run on
its own: 454.
Krasner, Milton, capitalizes availa-
ble assets: 8.
Kruse builds rental crane: item, 283.
Lens, bi-focal system for optical
Lighting: 94; 134; 189; 230; 238; 278;
Lighting Shirley Temple: 94.
Linolite brings use of variable den-
Lloyd, Frank, hails men of camera:
Looking at London cinematographic-
M.G.M. to make wide use of tone-
tint merging: 372.
"Michael Stroghoff" registers genu-
ine triumph in technique: 101.
Milner elected president of A.S.C.:
Mitchell announces new sound re-
Movie, The — Uncle Sam's international
New Burroughs "Wellcome Diary"
New film editing aid gives larger
New Leica projector: item, 242.
New office for National: item, 192.
One concern gets Brazilian business:
Perry, Harry, talks to pilots on air
Pollock, Gordon, builds test lab:
Precision lighting: 278.
Process engineering: 232.
Producing shorts down in Tahiti: 9.
Production effects with Agfa's new
type infra-red film: 96.
Projection: item, 242; 412.
Reaction on making his first color
Recent developments in motion pic-
ture lighting: 319.
Reeves, Art, introduces all-purpose
Reeves combines light tester and
Research Council compiles bulletin
on sound tracks: 415.
River roll along: 92.
Rolling camera locker guards cam-
eras on set: 325.
Roos, Len, comes to buy equipment:
Rotary protects lenses in water
Shearer, Douglas, & M.G.M., hon-
ored by Academy Board: 145.
Shorts, producing down in Tahiti: 9.
Some comment, some fact: 417.
Sound: 138; 324; 415; 453.
Sound recording quality improves:
Stills, attacking the problem of
Stroghotf — triumph in technique: 101.
Stumar directs Shaw: 179.
Technicolor brings new charm to
Television, lighting, sound, color
stand out at Engineers con-
Television of today has long road
to go: 280.
Television will supplement but won't
supplant: 322; 366.
They make pictures in India: 90.
Time payments here: 358.
Two new films for duplicating work:
Walker, Mate & Marsh win critics'
What 1937 has shown in technical
What says the morn?: 272.
Why "idO Men and a Girl" makes a
hit on screen: 453.
Write your own head: 315.
X. Y, Z
Zukor. Adolph, industry pays glow-
ing tribute to: 49.
Advances Cineamateurs hail DuPont's
new 16mm: 265.
Aerial photography: 341, 484.
Amateur Cameramen Make Winner:
Amateur Club News: items, 34; 116;
164; 221; 258; 394; 428.
Amateur contest of 1936: 25.
Amateur movie making: III; 162;
Amateur-pro or pro-amateur is Ken-
neth Forbes: 296.
American concern gets bulk of Bra-
zilian business: 438.
Ampro's model L for all homes: 473.
Automatic development has its ad-
Background vs. foreground lighting:
Being prepared is key to luck when
on Safari: 208.
Bell & Howell installs vaporate film
Bol, Cornelius, comes to rescue
Brooks is agent for '''Night Photog-
raphy": item, 220.
Build fastest sky camera to shoot
Business man's show has charm: 382.
Cameras: item, 32; item, 83; 252.
Camera should be instrument of illu-
sion : 119.
Camera speed change will help your
Camera toting medico brings film a-
Cinematographers have language all
their own: 76; 122.
Cinematography in 8mm cameras aid
in dentistry: 426.
Cinning abroad at home; 167.
Coaching an Olympic team with
16mm: 1 12.
Color: 31: 72; 298; 430; 484. _
Color in black and white films: 72.
Columbia University sponsoring Lit-
tle's International Salon: 251.
Composition not so tough as is
often claimed: 264.
Conditions in Orient fine, declares
Contest of 1936; 25.
Continuity: 30; 386; 480.
Cut, brothers, cut with care: 437.
Cutting to balance atmosphere and
Da-Llte has new method for glass
beaded screens: 436.
Demonstrate new Eastman projector:
Developing: 344, 435.
Diffused lightings make most natural
color film: 298.
Documentary film patterned from
prize winner: 69.
Dramatizing a cow proves good busi-
Duncan MacD. Little inaugurates mo-
tion picture program: 523.
Effects: 70; 72; 144; 119; 218.
Effects, Kodachrome light: 31.
Equipment: item, 120; 299; 399; 429;
Exhibition of applied and scientific
photography: item, 32.
Exposure: 300, 304.
Family scenario of interiors for win-
ter shooting: 28.
Film: item, 82; 265; 388; 481; item,
Film dryer: item, 120.
Filters: item, 32; 216.
Ford designs mobile picture power
Flying film.er tells of making air
For best results plan vacations on
budget basis: 256.
Gadgets: 306; 429.
G-E announces new flash lamp: 166.
Getting best out of your exposure
Getting professional diffusion with
amateur movie camera: 218.
German cine statistics: item, 217.
Gerstenkorn, Dr., shows film of rag-
ing Yangtse: 483.
Going places is this 8mm club of
Los Angeles: 336.
Great sensitivity in two Afga press
Gumbiner brings us 16mm sound
Half across world and back in
Here's the answer: 168; 210; 267; 302;
Holiday moviemaking as newsman
sees it: 480.
Hollywood Forum has successful con-
Honorable mention extended to ama-
Hortons give trophy to Los Angeles
How films aid in advertising: 439.
How suggestion aids production: 338.
How to aid in lighting homes for
cine films: 474.
How to get stills from movie frames:
492 American Cinematographer • December, 1937
How to shoot Kodachrome light ef-
How to trick titles: 212.
International meet set for April 6
at Columbia: 340.
International salon proposed by Lit-
It won't be long now: 478.
Japan's year book is worthy publi-
James, Rian, to South Seas a-gypsy-
ing goes: 160.
King of Allah's garden: III.
Kodaslide reproduces stills with great
Labs make advances in their han-
dling of film: 344.
Leavitt represents Univex in West:
Lens: item, 32; Item, 120.
Lighting: 31, 70; 94; 118; 124; 298;
Lighting Shirley Temple: 94.
Mac-Gurrin paintings on view: 345.
Major gadgets galore on stream-
line: 8; 306.
Making cinema stars of amateurs:
Making photos on metal: 311.
Meters: item, 77.
Moore, Grace, is keen filmer of inti-
mate shots: 434.
Moore, Kinney, is making third di-
mensional film: 388.
Musical mood and tempo for the
1936 prize winners: 74.
Native films: item, 120.
Nelson, Clifford, shows film at Roch-
New Bausch & Lomb laboratory: 123.
New Eastman sound projector dem-
onstrated at Convention: 261.
News of the movie clubs: 258, 308;
No easy task to get results in titling
Notable honors for amateur produc-
Notes of the movie clubs: 526.
Now's the time to get busy on needed
Oswald, 10 years old, going big in 8
and 16mm: 266.
Patience keynote to prize pictures:
Photo product may be bought on
Photographic annual will aid cam-
Planning is +he basis of better vaca-
tion films: 386.
Poet-photographer, Ihe: 158.
Projection: 121; 261; 473.
Roper creates unit to push film sales:
San Franciscans hail Nelson's "Trail
Santa stars in Christmas continuity:
Scenarios: 28; 69; 477; 480.
Sease, Dr., A.S.C., talks to Philadel-
Shooting waterfront as Sherlock sees
Shorts: item, 82.
16mm ideal medium for educational
16mm sound displacing 35mm in busi-
ness way: 262.
Staten Island cinema: item, 222.
Stills: 121; 214.
Story of girl and dog: 477.
Stuart, Ruth, wins triple recognition
in 1936 contest: 25.
Tell it to the film say examining
Teorey, Sergeant, outstanding disci-
ple of 8mm movie making:
There's right filter for every film
Thomson takes out patents for mak-
ing photo on metal: 311.
Three-lens turret built for 8mm users:
Titles continue important part of
silent film: 390.
Transition: I 14.
Travel: 160; 208; 254; 430; 483.
Trick Shots: 70; 119; 338.
Tripods: item, 120.
Uncle Sam busy lenser: 398.
Visual educationists meet: item, 217.
Wheels of industry: 32; 77; 120.
When added scenes close up the.
Wide world supports Columbia moviee
Winter Inc. opens up to date store:
X. Y, Z
You just can't help doing these-
transitlon things: 114.
JUST BETWEEN TURKEYS
TWO SIGNS OF THE TIMES
T here are several attention com-
pelling statements in the report
of the Philadelphia Cinema Club for
November as forwarded to us by B. N.
Levene, chairman of the club’s publi-
Nearly all of the films, as attested
by their titles, were based on out-
door subjects. That is interesting.
All of the films were in Koda-
For the first time in the experience
of this particular organization the
8mm. contestants outnumbered those
submitting 16mm. films.
The second and third items are
revelatory of the tendency of the
times. There can be no question, in
the Los Angeles area in any event,
of the mounting use of color in ama-
teur motion picture photography.
The item regarding the outnumber-
ing of the 16mm. by the 8mm. sub-
jects is confirmatory of the recently
expressed opinion of an executive of
one of the gi eater equipment manu-
facturers of the world, who declared
his belief the 8mm. demand had
grown to equal that of the 16mm. if
it had not already exceeded it.
The officer alluded to, who is in an
exceptional position to estimate the
present trend in the amateur field,
expressed the view it is only a com-
paratively short time when the 8mm.
will outnumber the 16mm. in public
demand to the extent of perhaps 50
“Frankly,” he went on, “I firmly be-
lieve it will in time reach a ratio of
100 to 1 in favor of the more econom-
By GEORGE BLAISDELL
ical 8mm. as against the 16mm. The
latter by no means will be discarded,
but it looks to me as if it will be-
come largely the screen medium of
the semi-professional users and those
who are not concerned what their film
activities may cost them in dollars and
It is not yet a week at this writing
since the editor was discussing the
same subject with one of the ener-
The Front Cover
T he picture on the front cover
was exposed during the por-
trayal of one of the more dramatic
love scenes between Garbo and
Charles Boyer in the making of
MGM’s “Conquest.” Karl Freund,
A.S.C., shown in the inset, was di-
rector of photography. William
H. Grimes photographed the still
shown on the cover.
getic and forward-looking members of
the Los Angeles 8mm. Club. At that
time the member promised to put his
conclusions on paper for the benefit
of the readers of this magazine. We
have hopes the result will be received
in time for printing in this issue. It
is certain to be worth reading when
it comes in.
SEE “THE BARRIER”
Harry Sherman’s “Barrier,” which
he produced for Paramount distribu-
tion, will bring recollections to older
picturegoers of the first of the thi-ee
adaptations of this stirring Rex Beach
story. It was made during the receiv-
ership of “Pop” Lubin, the Philadel-
phia film pioneer, and was one of the
most successful subjects ever to come
from that studio. It was released
early in 1917.
Twenty years have brought great
changes in filmmaking. The first
“Barrier” was directed by Edgar
Lewis, one of the best of his time,
now several years retired. For its
period it made a greater mark than
comparatively will the present one.
It did that for the reason pretentious
subjects were few and far between
in 1917. They aie not in 1937.
There are a number of factors that
will make the Sherman adaptation
notable. Almost in the first shot of
the picture we are brought under the
spell of the work of the photographers
in their transference to the screen
of the beauties of Mount Baker Na-
tional Forest, the locale of the pio-
duction. The result has all the color
of the north and the charm of stream
and forest. George Barnes, A.S.C.,
directed the photography.
Leo Carrillo again demonstrates in
the leading part of Poleon his mar-
velous finesse in character delineation.
He weighs his portrayals on extreme-
ly sensitive scales. The pressure he
applies or the pressure he omits
seems always to be exact.
And keeping closely behind this in-
terpreter of the French - Canadian
woodsman are Jean Parker, James
Ellison, Robert Barrat (and especial-
ly), Otto Kruger, Andy Clyde, and
“The Barrier” is strong and excel-
December, 1937 • American Cinematographer 493
WHAT 1937 HAS SHOWN IN
TECHNICAL PROGRESS IN
MOTION PICTURE MAKING
T he year 1937 has been for the motion picture industry one
of peak production. As such, technical progress has been
basically along lines tending to improve or expedite details,
rather than in sweeping changes. Nevertheless, definite advances
are noticeable in many directions, and in some fields — most not-
ably, perhaps, that of raw film manufacture — sweeping advances
are heralded for the immediate future, if not already announced.
A very definite trend toward color has been noted, while last
year’s trend of modernizing the equipment of studio camera de-
partments has continued unabated. A radical change in the con-
tractual relations between studios and sound equipment purveyors
has been seen.
The sub-standard field has grown
enormously, with 16mm. taking on
increased importance as a semi-pro-
fessional and educational standard.
The demand for 8mm. equipment has
grown to such proportions that man-
ufacturers have fallen behind in their
orders even before the Christmas
rush has started.
Until shortly before this review
was written production schedules and
budgets had both been on the in-
crease; in the opinions of some ex-
perts somewhat too greatly in ad-
vance of box office receipts. As this
is written a trend toward produc-
tion economy is noticeable, while the
erstwhile despised program picture
gains higher esteem.
The move toward color during the
latter months of 1937 has taken on
almost the aspect of a boom. Fol-
lowing notable and progressive ad-
vancements in the quality of natural
color cinematography, and especially
in the laboratory processing of color
film and prints, several major pro-
ducers, already committed to the pro-
duction of one or several color fea-
tures, increased their commitments,
while others, including several stu-
dios previously uninterested in or
even opposed to color, have contract-
ed for color features. Yet another
major producer, Samuel Goldwyn, of
United Artists, announced his future
production would be entirely in color.
Coincidentally with this, an in-
creasing number of major studio con-
tract directors of photography, pre-
viously associated only with the pro-
duction of important monochrome
films, have been placed in charge of
photographing natural color produc-
The success of these members of
the A.S.C. in the still new artistic
and technical field of color is and
will be, if judged by such films as
already have been released or pre-
viewed, fully as great as had been
forecast in these columns. It may
well give color a further impetus.
Trend to Color
The trend toward color has also
been evidenced in the revival of tint-
ing and toning monochrome film by
at least two studios. This has been
done with greater artistic restraint
than was known in the tint-and-tone
work of silent days and, with the ad-
vantage of today’s routined use of
sensitometric control and machine
operations, is technically vastly su-
perior to previous uses of these proc-
The year has been marked by a
lessening of the stream of foreign-
bound Hollywood technicians. This
has been due to a general tightening
up of restrictions on imported talent
in the various foreign producing cen-
ters and to the improvement of native
talent in many cases.
Tighter economic regulations in
several foreign countries, in combi-
nation with wars and war scares in
both Europe and Asia, have been
seriously reflected on the receipts of
The much discussed establishment
of a British Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
production unit has become a fact,
with the firm’s first British-American
feature under way. R-K-0 is under-
stood to have reached a somewhat
similar arrangement with the British
producer Herbert Wilcox.
Two important new types of raw
film material have come into general
use. Chronologically the first is
Agfa’s Type B infra-red sensitive
film. This emulsion is in a way sim-
ilar to the firm’s previous type inas-
much as its sensitivity is such as to
permit the use of filters far lighter
than those previously employed for
infra-red photography, giving a
greatly increased effective speed.
For Night Effects
The new type, however, is charac-
terized by a more normal contrast
and gradation, permitting its use not
only in background and atmospheric
night effect scenes, but in filming
night effects of normal action includ-
ing close-ups of principal players.
The use of this film for filming ex-
terior night effects by daylight has
become almost general.
The second notable improvement
is the introduction of Eastman’s two
new duplicating films, which have
revolutionized the creating of dupli-
cate negatives. One of these emul-
sions is for making the master du-
plicating positive from which the
dupe negative is printed; the other for
making the duplicate negative itself.
With them it is for the first time
possible to get dupe negatives from
which prints indistinguishable from
prints from the original negative can
Aside from the obvious uses of
these materials in special effects proc-
esses they are capable of saving the
studios notable sums in the making
of foreign release prints and in ad-
dition bring to foreign audiences
identical photographic quality seen in
American releases — a quality hereto-
fore all too often lacking.
New Agfa Negative
As this is written Afga is preparing
to make formal announcement of two
new negative films, at least one of
which has in some cases been used
on actual major studio production.
The first of these is trade named
Supreme, and is reported to have a
Weston speed rating of 64 to daylight
and 40 to incandescent light, while
retaining fine-grain characteristics
equal or superior to the previous
Superpan types. The second is known
as Ultrapan, and is said to have a
494 American Cinematographer • December, 1937
sensitivity still greater than this ex-
It is understood other manufactur-
ers have similar super-speed emul-
sions in preparation, so 1938 may
confidently be forecast as a year of
revolutionary changes in film, and
consequently in lighting, processing
and many allied techniques.
In the sub-standard field the major
reversal-type products have remained
basically unchanged, but two new
16mm. negative films have been put
DuPont introduced an improved
16mm. version of its familiar Su-
perior panchromatic film, and Agfa,
in addition to supplying the familiar
Superpan emulsion on 16mm. stock,
introduced a sub-standard version of
the moderate speed, fine-grain Fino-
pan already used for background and
miniature camera photography.
It may in this connection also be
remarked that DuPont introduced a
new emulsion of this type for mini-
ature camera use under the name
Gevaert, already in the sub-stand-
ard field in Europe, and in this coun-
try as supplier of the pre-slit 8mm.
film for the popular-priced Univex,
entered the double-width 8mm. field
with several films including a super-
No radical innovation in profes-
sional motion picture cameras ap-
peared. The trend toward modern-
izing major studio camera equipment
continued, however, with an increas-
ing number of the self-blimped Mit-
chell NC type cameras as well as new
standard silenced cameras of the
same manufacture going into service.
The combination of an unexpected-
ly increased demand with a shortage
of high-grade optical products, both
imported and domestic, has resulted
in a nation-wide shortage of sub-
standard — particularly 8mm. — cam-
eras and projectors of all types.
Some few foreign sub-standard
equipments have appeared on the
American market, and there are per-
sistent rumors that at least one not-
able European manufacturer of
16mm. and 8mm. caiueras is shortly
to erect an American factory.
A new 16mm. sound-on-film single-
system camera recorder, the Gum-
biner Syncro-Sound, has been intro-
duced. This is a semi-professional
equipment, following essentially pro-
fessional practice as regards size,
general operation, and the like, but
evidencing interesting innovations in
the dual synchronized motor drive
of the picture and sound movements
of the film.
Several interesting accessories to
professional production have been
developed. Among them may be
mentioned a device for variable dif-
fusion effects developed by Emil
Oster, of the Columbia Studio. This
consists of a simple mechanism for
raising or lowering a gauze or other
diffuser in front of a camera lens.
The device is built into the blimp,
and is controlled from the outside.
John Arnold, A.S.C., developed a ro-
tating screen to protect camera
lenses from water and spray in film-
ing rain and storm scenes.
An outstanding accessory in the
sub-standard field is the Harrison
Colormeter, a direct development of
the color balancing finder unit made
by Harrison for the Dunningcolor
camera and chronicled in these pages
a year ago.
A reading is obtained from the
meter by visual inspection. This
reading in turn governs the choice
of the color correcting filter used to
correct the color rendition of the
scene to normal standards. The same
firm marketed a set of matched filters
for black-and-white cinematography,
so coordinated that all filters have
the same exposure factor.
No advancement in this field en-
tered the realm of practical camera-
work. Reports of a liquid lens of
greatly increased transmission and
virtually universal depth of field come
from England, while at the Califor-
nia Institute of Technology experi-
ments with a new lens working at
an aperture considerably greater
than f:l are reported. Neither has
as yet reached the commercial stage.
The trend toward lower levels of
illumination continues, and is height-
ened by a marked trend toward light-
ing almost exclusively with spot-
lights. In the lighting of natural
color productions, two definite and
contradictory schools of thought are
evident: one holds that the fact of
color eliminates much of the need for
high contrasts in illumination, while
the other holds that the best results
are had by lighting color with some-
what greater contrast than would be
the case in monochrome.
Both are represented by capable
artists and excellent films, leaving
the true result in doubt pending fur-
ther spread of color cinematography.
The popularity of the more effi-
cient Fresnel-lensed lighting units in-
creases. The originators of these
lamps as applied to cinematography,
Mole-Richardson, Inc., have intro-
duced two new units of the Solarspot
type: a 1000-Watt unit and a 500-
Watt “baby spot,” as well as a small
Where the cameraman — just for a flash — has the laugh on the player: Bert Glennon, A. S. C.,
directing photography on Goldwyn’s “Hurricane,” cha Is Mary Astor, just after the player has
donned dry garb, over her rough experiences in the breathtaking scenes of that man-made
tempest the while the cinematographer looked on from behind the camera, quite high and
comparatively dry. The player retorts by gently reminding him she saw him being photographed
not so long before when not even a microscope would have revealed the trace of a smile on
his face. The result of that picture Miss Astor saw in the making is reproduced on the
December, 1937 • American Cinematographer 495
65-Ampere H. I. Arc spotlight em-
bodying the same principles.
Another firm, B'ardwell & McAlis-
tei’, Inc., introduced a F'resnel-lensed
2000-Watt unit known as the Keg-
Lite, and a larger 24-inch unit known
as the T\^pe T-5 studid spot in
which a Fresnel type lens is com-
bined with the conventional para-
bolic mirror to give an even fiood, a
fact unrealized before in the 24-inch
lamp. This principle, which involves
a differential movement between the
globe and lens, can be applied to the
modernization of existing reflecting
Incandescent lighting units, using
the over-volted Movieflood type of
high color temperature incandescent
filament globes in conjunction with
special daylight-blue filters, have
been officially approved and used suc-
cessfully in Technicolor photography.
In this connection, too, it may be
said that with the availability of
modern, Fresnel-lensed spotlighting
units of adequate power, floodlight-
ing units, and especially the overhead
“scoops,” have been as completely
eliminated from color cinematog-
raphy as have comparable incan-
descent floodlighting units from
Two new types of flash globes for
still photography have been devel-
oped. One is an American version
of the wire-filled Phillips globe, made
here under the name Wabash.
This globe uses fine hydrolanium
wire instead of foil, and due to this
claims a longer peak of higher ef-
fective illumination. The other, a
controlled mercury arc, was de-
veloped by General Electric. This
globe may be used repeatedly, and
gives a fast flash of extreme bril-
Several of the users of the pro-
jected background or transparency
process have made important strides
in illumination, thereby making pos-
sible the use of notably larger back-
The same factor has made it pos-
sible to employ the process more ex-
tensively in natural color produc-
tions, as will be noted from several
An equipment for using this proc-
ess in conjunction with stereopticon
or lantern slide static background' has
been made available to commercial
photographers as well as to the in-
As has been indicated, the latter
months of this year have taken on
the proportions of a boom in color
production, with all but two of the
major studios, as well as several im-
portant independent producers for
For explanation see caption under picture on opposite page. The score would seem to be even.
such major releases, making one or
more color features.
All of these films are being made
in one process — Technicoloi — while
independent production of two-color
features, so noticeable a year ago,
has declined almost if not literally
to the vanishing point.
Three Color Trend
At least one of these two-color proc-
esses is, however, in the final stages
of a transition to three-color, while
several other promising three-color
systems are under intensive develop-
Early in the year the Agfacolor
process was described before the So-
ciety of Motion Picture Engineers
and in articles in this and other
It is a multiple-layer, selectively
sensitized emulsion similar in piin-
ciple to the familiar Kodachrome,
from which it differs, however, in de-
tail and especially in the fact that
one of the dye-coupler components is
latent in the emulsion itself, while
the others are added in a single color
developer bath subsequent to normal
black-and-white reversal operations.
This film is not as yet commercially
available in this country, though it is
marketed in Europe.
The Dufaycolor process has cap-
(Continued on Page 507)
496 American Cinematographer • December, 1937
COOPERATION BULKS BIG
IN WORK OF MAKE-UP
By PERC WESTMORE
Head of Make-Up Department, Warner Brothers — First National Studios
(Abridged from an address given at the September meeting of the
American Society of Cinematographers.)
T he most important factors in
the success of any kind of
make-up work are thorough un-
derstanding and cooperation between
the cinematographer and the make-up
artist. Each actually exists to help
the other in the task of presenting
interesting and convincing characters
on the screen.
If both keep this fact in mind, they
can simplify each other’s work tre-
mendously. If they are, as is too often
the case, at swords’ points, the best
efforts of neither can bring wholly
The reason I am here tonight is to
try to encourage such a spirit of
You gentlemen here realize that,
apart from minor personal techniques,
there is no real mystery about cine-
matography. That idea went out of
style with backward-turned caps.
Speaking with equal frankness, there
is no real mystery about make-up,
either. The man who tries to shroud
either cinematography or make-up
with an aura of mystery is fooling no
one but himself. He is not increasing
the importance of his work, but tear-
ing it down.
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That is the big trouble with the
“corrective” technique of make-up to-
day. In some studios it is quite
rightly regarded as the most impor-
tant recent development in make-up,
and used as a fixed part of the stu-
dio’s routine. In other studios, it has
seemed a failure.
If you will look below the surface
you will invariably find that the stu-
dios using this technique successfully
are those where genuine cooperation
between make-up and cinematography
exists, and that those in which it has
not succeeded are those in which such
cooperation does not exist.
It has been charged that this meth-
od of make-up attempts to light the
players for the cinematographer. This
is not true. No possible combination
of make-up can take the place of the
cinematographer’s lighting. But cor-
rectly used, “corrective” make-up can
supplement the cinematographer’s
work, and make his problems easier.
The whole system is built on the
simple idea that concave areas in a
face absorb more light than do con-
vex areas. Conversely, a protruding
area, since it is not physically shad-
owed, will reflect more light than
The cinematographer’s method of
dealing with these facial irregulari-
ties is to project more light into hol-
lows, and less on to protruding areas.
Corrective make-up in its simplest
form strives, with considerable suc-
cess, to create artificial areas of high-
light where more light is needed, and
artificial shadows where less light is
In other words, where we know the
cinematographer would naturally need
more light — as in a hollow under an
eye, for example — we simply offset
some of the natural absorption of
light which causes the shadow by
using a lighter shade of make-up for
that particular spot; and where a
natural bulge tells us the cinematog-
rapher will want less light, to mini-
mize the natural highlight from the
rounded surface, we help the cine-
matographer by using make-up of a
tone darker — and therefore more light
absorptive than that used on the sur-
If these corrections are actually
made with light it is not always easy,
or even possible, to confine the light
to the relatively small area where it
is needed. The surplus therefore
“drains” off on to other parts of the
face; sometimes on to areas where
such added light might be likely to
accentuate otherwise acceptable feat-
For instance, suppose a cinematog-
rapher is adding light to smoothe out
some hollows under the eyes, and the
player in question has some inclina-
tion toward a square jaw. The added
light which would “paint out” the eye
hollows would be very likely to exag-
gerate the slight fullness of the jaw
into a jowl. The make-up man can
help the cinematographer with this
problem. To begin with, he would
treat the little concavities under the
eyes with a lighter make-up, so that
less light would be needed to blend
them into the smooth area of the
At the same time, he would apply a
somewhat darker make-up to the
How a corrective make-up is charted. The drawins shows the Make-up Department’s chart of
Beverly Roberts’ corrective make-up. The photo shows the make-up applied, with the shaded
and highlig-hted areas outlined.
American Cinematographer 497
lower sides of the jaw, so that such
added light as reached there would
meet a more absorptive surface, and
would not, therefore, reflect and give
the impression of an overly prominent
jaw. The reverse, of course, holds
These corrective touches must be
applied delicately or not at all. The
start of the make-up is, as always, the
application of a thin, smooth founda-
tion of the desired shade of grease-
Thinner the Better
The thinner this foundation is, the
better. Then the desired highlights
and shadows are carefully blended in,
sometimes thinning the foundation at
that point. This highlighting, inci-
dentally, is a very delicate operation,
and requires experienced judgment,
especially when the highlight or
shadow grease is applied over the
existing foundation, for in thus put-
ting one shade of grease-paint over
another the result is virtually mixing
the two shades of grease-paint, and
tends to appear lighter than the dark-
er tone added, in the case of shading,
or darker than the light tone added,
in the case of a highlight.
The matter of blending these high-
lights and shadows with the rest of
the face is tremendously important.
Probably the biggest single mistake
often made in this is in doing it too
The important thing is to blend
the various shades together so per-
fectly that the eye cannot perceive
any line of demarcation between the
normal foundation and the highlight
Once th make-up artist and the
cinematographer have agreed on
what is to be done we prepare a de-
tailed chart of the make-up, as shown
in the illustrations. This chart simply
consists of an outline sketch of the
face. Upon it we outline the areas
to be shadowed or highlighted.
Indicate Shade Number
The cryptic numbers you see scat-
tered about these various areas in-
dicate the precise shade-number of
grease paint to be used in that area.
For instance, in the chart of Beverly
Roberts’ make-up, we see that the
base make-up is Arden’s No. 6. The
highlights at the temples, along the
ridge of the nose, under the inner
edges of both eyes, and around the
corners of the mouth are created with
Arden’s No. 3 grease paint.
The shadows which subdue the
forehead and cheek bones, slim the
sides of the nose and render the chin
less prominent, are Arden’s No. 9
The eye shadow is Factor’s No. 22,
and the powder Factor’s No. 26.
It will be noted we use the same
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The drawing illustrates the way Paula Stone’s corrective make-up is planned.
The photo shows how she looks in that make-up.
number of powder overall, regardless
of any shadowing or highlighting be-
neath. The lip rouge is No. 390-A,
the mascara brown, and the dry rouge
the light shade. From this chart any
competent make-up artist should be
able to reproduce perfectly the orig-
inal corrective make-up.
The other illustration, which shows
a make-up created for Paula Stone,
the fundamental shades of make-up
used are the same, but they are ap-
plied differently. For instance, there
was no need to subdue the cheek
bones, so they used the regular foun-
dation shade — No. 6.
On the other hand, there is a slight
natural concavity along the lines
from the nose to the corners of the
mouth, so they were highlighted with
an application of No. 3 grease-paint.
Just above the outer corners of the
upper lip are slight convexities, which
are toned down with the darker No.
9 grease, while the lower corners of
the jaw are subdued with shadows of
the same shade. The eye shadow and
pow’der are again F’actor’s Nos. 22
and 26 respectively, but a brown
make-up pencil is used and the lip
rouge is Factor’s No. 22, while the
mascara is black.
Part II will be printed in an early
A. S. C MEMBERS
• John Arnold, A.S.C., is well settled
in his new camera department home
at MGM. The quarters are on Stage
17 and are spacious. The normal per-
sonnel of eighty men had outgrowm
their home of the last dozen years.
They have a recreation room, and
they are putting it to use. Now
when they are between pictures for
several hours they have some place
to go but out. Yes, and they like it.
The department has wider facili-
ties for experimentation, whether in
photographic or mechanical lines,
• Sidney C. Wagner, A.S.C., after
five months in Africa with Twentieth-
Fox’s “Stanley and Livingstone,” left
late in November for Burmah with a
camera crew of five and accompanied
by a sound crew of three to work on
a native subject with Merian Cooper.
Director Ernest Schoedsack left in
October with his party. The troupe
expects to be away a year.
• Archie Stout, A.S.C., has been
loaned by Samuel Goldwyn to Harold
Lloyd to work on “Professor Beware,”
a Paramount release.
• Leo Tover, A.S.C.. attacked by the
flu, was compelled to release work
on Paramount’s “Bluebeard’s Eighth
Wife” and slip into bed. Charles
Schoenbaum succeeded him.
(Continued on Page 506)
498 American Cinematographer • December, 1937
Director of Photography,
Bert Glennon, A. S. C.
Guy Coburn and Alex Kahle photo-
graphed the stills.
At left, above — Terangi and Marama
decide to take a chance to outwit
the fury of the waters by climbing
a parau tree.
Below — At left — Father Paul (Au-
brey Smith) and Germaine de Laage
(Mary Astor) tight their way to-
ward the island church in the hope
of finding refuge from the storm.
At their right Terangi (Jon Hall),
Marama (Dorothy Lamour) and Tita
(Kuulei DeClercq), their child, sink
their outrigger in order to preclude
On opposite page — Top, South Sea
Island feast. Bottom, left, Reri.
who attained fame as the native
heroine of “Tabu,” South Sea Island
production of the late F. >V.
Murnau and released in 1931 by
Paramount, returns to the screen.
Bottom, right, native girls congrat-
ulate Marama, the bride, and adorn
her with blossoms.
500 American Cinematographer • December, 1937
COLOR AN ADVANTAGE
SHOOTING STEEL MILLS
By CHARLES P. BOYLE, A.S.C.
I HAVE just returned from mak-
ing- a feature-length industrial
film for the United States Steel
Corporation, telling the story of steel
from the mine to the finished prod-
uct. Making any kind of a production
on such a location is a difficult pho-
tographic assignment: but this par-
ticular film was photographed entirely
in Technicolor! At first thought one
might believe this would add greatly
to the photographic problems of mak-
ing the pictui'e, with but little to show
in added visual effect.
Actually, I am convinced the exact
opposite was the case, for the color-
helped us over some of our photo-
graphic problems, and added very
definitely to the visual effects on the
screen. We could not have achieved
so graphic a presentation of the steel
industry had we been confined to
Anyone who has ever visited a big
steel mill carries away wdth hinr mem-
ories of huge, pitch-black buildings,
highlighted here and there by the
white-hot glow- of incandescent metal.
Photographically it is a study in ab-
solute extremes of dazzling white
light and inky-black shadow.
From the cinematographer’s viev--
point the problem is magnified by the
incredibly huge areas to be presented
in many shots. Buildings that will
house a battery of half a dozen or a
dozen rrrighty open hearth furnaces
and the giant machinery used to
charge them and to ladle off the mol-
ten steel are just too vast to be de-
scribed in words.
Lighting 31ill Big Job
All of this makes the matter of
lighting any sort of a steel mill pic-
ture a really big one. For either
black-and-white or color, it is of
course manifestly impossible to build
up the lighting level to anything like
equality with the incandescent glare
of the molten metal.
It is just as impossible to attempt
to light up the whole huge area. These
limitations are heightened w-hen you
consider that working on such a loca-
tion one is thousands of miles away
from the great store of lighting-
equipment we take for granted in
Hollywood, and must do the job with
a relatively limited supply of both
lamps and power.
Since we were shooting Technicolor
we had the advantage of using the
modern, high-pow-ered arc lighting
units developed especially for Techni-
color by Mole-Richardson. Our equip-
ment consisted of a half dozen M-R
Side Arcs, ten M-R Type 170 H.I. Arc
150-Amp. spotlights, six M-R Type 90
H.I. Arc 85-Amp. spotlights, and three
of the little 65-Amp. H.I. Arcs. Our
power supply was from one of
Mole-Richardson’s new 175-Kw. gaso-
line-electric generator trucks. Not
particularly generous resources for
lighting up hundreds of square feet
of soot-covered blackness!
Lighting the closer angles, of
course, was no great problem. But in
lighting the long shots we had to de-
velop a technique of revealing what
we could, and suggesting what we
could not directly reveal. Suppose, for
instance, that w-e were making a shot
of a long battery of blast furnaces.
Lamps in Groups
We would plan things so that in the
foreground we would have whatever
action might be important, lit fully
and naturally. For this we made
especial use of the side arcs and some
of the smaller spotlights.
The other spotlights would be dis-
tributed at intervals down the length
of the building; not attempting to
spread their light over the whole vast
area, but concentrated in groups here
and there, each group of lamps pick-
ing out some important action, or
creating a pictorially necessary high-
At one point in the background one
of the furnace doors might be ajar,
creating another strong highlight. At
I , f from a massive ladle, the foreground is normally lit, while open furnace doors in the
distance lend depth to the shot 2. Making the hottest shot of “Men of Steel”: focusing the Technicolor camera on the interior of a huge
electric furnace. (Photo courtesy United States Steel Corporation and Roland Reed Productions )
December, 1937 •
American Cinematographer 501
other points furnace doors might be
opened intermittently in routine oper-
ation, momentarily throwing the men
working there into bold silhouette. At
the extreme end of the building was
an open door, through which the sun-
light outside could be seen.
Thus our long shots literally,
showed the highlights of the scene,
the details of which later could be
shown more clearly in closer shots.
From the purely photographic view-
point this enabled us to make the
shot, despite the huge area to be cov-
ered and our relatively small supply
of equipment. Actually, I feel this
treatment, which suggests things
rather than showing them literally,
gives us a much better impression of
size and depth than if we had lit up
the area in the regular motion picture
This same idea of suggesting things
rather than showing them with bald
literalness helped us out in solving
the problem of photographing the
various operations on glowing hot
metal. Often we would make long
shots of such operations carried out
on a production line basis.
White to Yellow
In the distance, where its dazzling
intensity would not be too overpower-
ing, would be seen the start of the
operation, on white-hot incandescent
metal. As the operation moved down
toward the camera the metal would
grow cooler, so that by the time it
reached the foreground of the shot,
while still definitely glowing, it would
no longer be a white-hot blaze utterly
beyond the power of our lamps to
This, incidentally, gave us a very
interesting pictorial effect. Oddly
enough, while the metal’s color
changes visibly as it cools, and this
change is of course reproduced in
color on the screen, the change does
not seem disturbing or unnatural.
In fact, it seems to add to the effect
of the scene. At the far end the metal
is obviously white-hot. As it cools in
the working, and comes near the
camera, the white heat fades to a yel-
low glow, to orange and finally to a
red; and in so doing, it makes it
much easier for the audience to see
just what is being done to shape the
There were, of course, some shots
necessarily made at points where the
metal was still white-hot. In these
the primary illumination was often
supplied by the metal itself. One
might easily expect this to be a con-
siderable problem in color, where the
color of the lighting is of such im-
Actually, it was not; in some cases
the metal was heated to a tempera-
ture of as much as 5000 degrees
Fahrenheit, which gave an excellent
white light. In such scenes we often
used neutral density filters to reduce
the intensity of this incandescent
glare to a point our equipment could
handle, building up our lighting pro-
In other scenes, where the metal
was cooler, it ran through a variety
of shades from orange to dull red. As
it cooled, the light intensity lessened,
so that instead of being something
that actively competed with our light-
ing, the metal became merely hot,
glowing metal, and was shown as
such on the screen.
Here was one point where color was
definitely superior to black-and-white
for such a picture, for in monochrome,
aside from the intensity of the metal’s
glow, the camera can make no dis-
tinction between white-hot and red-
hot metal, and can thus give a very
exaggerated impression of a scene.
The contrasts between our illumi-
nated areas and the necessarily jet-
black surroundings also served to
heighten the effects of color. The
natural colors of the steelworkers and
their clothes contrasted with the
many-colored glow of the hot metals,
and set in a frame of velvety black-
ness made unusually effective color
scenes out of shots which, in mono-
chrome, might have been ordinary.
It may be mentioned, too, that be-
tween the lighting methods we used
and the efficiency of the arcs with
which we were equipped, we found the
relatively few lamps we carried ample
for our needs, even though some of
our shots embraced as much as a full
city block in depth. On several oc-
casions our Type 170 H.I. Arcs pro-
jected their beams effectively for well
over a hundred feet.
While this film, which is to be
titled “Men of Steel,” is technically
an industrial production, it is far dif-
ferent from the general idea of an
industrial film. Aside from the use
of Technicolor, Roland Reed, who pro-
duced the film for the United States
Steel Corporation, has given it a pro-
duction and budget worthy of a major-
studio program film.
Film Is Educational
The production is not, actually, a
selling or advertising film. Its pur-
pose is primarily educational; it is in-
tended to give the public a more
truthful idea of the men who make
steel, and what they do. As such, sev-
eral versions are being prepared,
ranging from a one-reel version for
theatrical release up to a five-reel
feature for educational use in schools
I have been told that several major
studio executives who have viewed
(Continued on Page 527)
1. On the screen this massive steel ingot glows orange-red as it is rolled into thin sheets. 2. Arc lights illuminate a river of molten iron flowing
into molds. (Photo courtesy United States Steel Corporation and Roland Reed Productions.)
American Cinematographer • December, 1937
SOVIET WORKING IN NEW
Released Through Press and
Publisher Literary Service
By V. SOLYEV
T he problem of stereoscopic,
three-dimensional motion pic-
ture projection is now being
widely discussed in motion picture
circles and research institutes of
The Scientific Research Institute of
Motion Pictures and Photography,
Nikfi, is now seriously engaged in
perfecting the projection of motion
pictures by anaglyph methods, by
means of polarizing filters, “fan-
shaped” screen and so on.
Furthermore, interesting research
is also being done in the three-dimen-
sional reproduction of sound.
Recently, the motion picture engi-
neer P. G. Taguer, one of the pioneers
of the sound film in the Soviet Union,
published a report of his work on the
attainment of spatial localization of
the sounds heard by motion picture
spectators in the auditorium of the
theatre. The work was done in one
of the laboratories of Nikfi in Mos-
The static effect of the sound repro-
duction in contrast to the dynamic
effect of the action unfolding on the
screen always disappoints the spec-
tator who newly comes to the modern
motion picture theatre. As the bore-
dom caused by this is intensified
when listening to long dialogues, it
has even influenced scenario writing,
forcing the script writer to shorten
Even in scenes where the action
is static the gross lack of spatial
synchronism between the sound and
the screen image strikes home to
the spectator. He cannot focus both
vision and hearing in that, let us say,
corner of the screen where the film
character is projected at a given
The character is in one corner while
the sound is heard somewhere from
the other side. Hence, the spectacle
has a great deal less effective influ-
ence on the spectator.
How to Eliminate
For these reasons it was decided
that fundamental changes had to be
made in sound projection, and con-
sequently also in sound recording.
How can this discrepancy between
sound and action be eliminated ?
This can be done by using two
microphones, mounted both on the
left and on the right side of the place
of action instead of using on which
records sound on a single sound-
If the actor goes from left to right
then the louder sounds of his steps
will be received first by the left
microphone and afterward by the
Both sound films also will record
Motion Picture cameraSupply «
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BRtant 9-77S4 J. BURCI CONTNER . aSZf.CINECAMERA
4516 Sunset Boulevard Night, No. Hollywood 1271
December, 1937 • American Cinematographer 503
0^1 E step removed from the original neg-
ative used to mean definite loss of quality.
Eastman Fine-Grain Duplicating Films
break this ride . . . break duplicating rec-
ords. These exceptional films are capable
of producing master positives and dupli-
cate negatives that are actually equal to
the originals in photographic quality. . . .
Eastman Kodak Company. Rochester. IN. Y.
(J. E. Brnlatonr, Inc., Distributors, Fort
Lee, Chicago, Hollywood.)
ni'PEirATI N'4> Eli. MS
504 American Cinematographer • December, 1937
analogous diminishing and increasing
loudness of sounds. In projection
the left sound film should be repro-
duced through a loud speaker mount-
ed in the left half of the screen and
the right sound film through a loud
speaker on the right side. (See
Then the spectator, seated in the
theatre, is convinced that the sound
of the steps of the moving character
is actually transmitted simultaneous-
ly with the movement of the person
from one side to the other.
If in addition to the two side micro-
phones there would be a third in the
interior of the set used for photo-
graphing and also a corresponding
third sound track as well as a third
loud speaker situated for projection
some distance behind the screen, then
it appears possible to reproduce in
sound also the depth of the motion
picture spectacle — the convergence
and recession of sounds in respect to
In this way the motion picture
sound would be brought to correspond
not only with modern two-dimensional
but also with the future three-dimen-
sional motion picture projection.
The whole question hinges on how
to record two or even three sound
tracks instead of one on a motion
picture film. There are several solu-
tions of this problem, arrived at by
the most varied ways. But even if
one had to use for the sound film a
separate film from the one on which
the image is photographed that would
not be too great a price to pay for
the attainment of a complete “stereo-
scopic effect” in sound.
Sound reproduction of this kind
will become an urgent necessity in
case three-dimensional motion picture
projection is actually realized.
Are there elements of stereoscopic
vision in the motion picture theatres
at present? Can we intensify these
elements, preparing in this way for a
complete shift to the building up of
three-dimensional motion picture pro-
Questions like these were raised
recently at one of the scientific meet-
ings on stereoscopic motion pictures,
which are periodically arranged by
the Scientific Society of Engineers
and Technicians of Motion Pictures
and Photography in Moscow.
It appears that there are such ele-
ments and that they can be intensified.
A three-dimensional motion picture
spectacle can be most frequently ob-
served at present when a geographic
landscape is shown. Landscapes are
often photographed with a motion
picture camera that is smoothly mov-
ing as when mounted on an automo-
bile or in the window of a railway
The depth and relief of image ob-
tained is quite extraordinary, espe-
cially if it be seen on a well-lighted
screen in the preview auditorium of
a motion picture studio.
This phenomenon is explained by
the fact that under these conditions
every fifth or sixth frame forms a
“stereoscopic pair” of images, such
as we have for looking through the
ordinary stereoscope, which gives
fixed images. (In the stereoscope also
there are two photographs taken from
somewhat different angles of vision).
Impressions from frames of film in
dynamic movement do not vanish im-
mediately from the perceiving eye.
Moving dynamically, the first frame
seen combines with the fifth or sixth,
forming the stereoscopic pair sought
for. By placing such frames in an
ordinary stereoscope this can be dem-
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American Cinematographer 505
Apart from the formation of such
a pair of images there is an addi-
tional general requirement which the
stereoscopic frame must meet; that is,
it must imitate as nearly as possible
the normal conditions of human vision.
Anything unnatural and unusual in
the structure of the image hinders a
living perception of it. The angle at
which shadows fall, the width of the
field of vision, the correctness of per-
spective — the eye takes in all this in
the determination of volume, and all
this inevitably betrays anything arti-
ficial in the structure of the object.
Just recall with what certainty you
determine where a photograph was
taken; this in a theatre, that in a
motion picture studio, but this one
here, from life.
The limit of naturalness in lighting,
observance of perspective, width of
the field of vision — these are essential
factors which the cameraman must
observe to obtain the maximum
stereoscopic effect in motion picture
The field of vision will be enlarged
to limits approximating the normal
sensitive vision of man; whereas at
present motion picture photographs
are taken from an angle of vision
embracing one-third to one-half the
normal field of human vision.
Stereoscopic effect is no less re-
markable from the viewpoint of the
Human vision grows feebler with
age not only through the human eyes
losing “f-value” and “focal adapta-
tion,” but also through the loss of
stereoscopic perception of objects. All
becomes flat or two-dimensional as in
the present-day motion picture screen.
But the three-dimensional screen will
be able to restore to any person the
complete stereoscopic effect of youth-
The very proportions of the screen
and the corresponding proportions of
the motion picture frame should ap-
proximate more closely the form of
the human visual field, which is con-
ditioned by the structure of the optic
orbits. If this be roughly portrayed
in rectangular form, then a figure is
obtained where the sides are in a pro-
portion of 1:2 and not 3:4 as is true
of the modern frame of film.
In the motion picture section of the
All-Union Inventors Society in Mos-
cow they say: If you have strips of
film which were photographed by a
camera in smooth movement then you
have an excellent collection of stereo-
The inventor, A. K. Kaufman, has
assembled a whole collection of about
150 pairs of frames, such as were
just mentioned, and looks at them
through an ordinary stereoscope. (In
this the frames are looked at by
In the course of this collecting
observations were made on the pe-
culiarities in human perception of a
three-dimensional motion picture
spectacle. These observations are
quite interesting for workers of the
stereoscopic motion picture. How lit-
(Continued on Page 524)
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FOR THE Ml
STUDIO €L CUTTING F
506 American Cinematographer
A.S.C. Members on Parade
(Continued from Pase 497)
• Sol Halperin, A.S.C., a member of
the African expedition of Twentieth-
Fox’s “Stanley-Livingstone” produc-
tion, on his return stopped off in Lon-
don. There he was joined by Mrs.
Halperin, following which the two
toured the Continent. The Halperins
are expected back in California early
• George Meehan, A.S.C., of the Co-
lumbia Studio, extracted his flannels
from the moth balls and went to Can-
ada with one of his studio’s units on
• M erritt Gerstad, A.S.C., has erected
so pretentious a home on his large
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valley acreage his associates decline
to classify the combination as any-
thing less in rank than an estate, par-
ticularly those who have been per-
mitted to see the new stables now un-
der construction. All of which is quite
all right with M. G. He admits he
really is beginning to live.
• James Van Trees, A.S.C., and Ed-
ward Blackburn, A.S.C., trekked north
to the Rogue River early in November
hunting steelheads. Both are in en-
tire agreement the gamey tribe was
running strong. That is undertand-
able. What does sound at least a
bit — er, strange, anyway, is that each
insists the other caught the biggest
• John Boyle, A.S.C., recently re-
turned from England after a stay of
two and a half years, has been busy
at the Columbia studio.
• Rude Mate, A.S.C., has returned to
the West Coast following a visit to
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FORTUNE AND THE WARNERS
T he magazine Fortune for Decem-
ber devotes eight full pages of
its ll^A by 14 inch size to the rise
and methods of Warner Brothers by
means of which it was enabled to
register a profit of six million dollars
last year. It is an intimate story and
an interesting one. It begins at the
beginning and comes right down to
The magazine suggests the com-
pany has larger gross assets (S177,-
500,000) than any other motion pic-
ture company. Of Harry Warner, the
head of the company as well as of the
family, it remarks that while he may
not be as witty as Jack he is more
surprising and his career is more en-
tertaining than some of Jack’s movies.
It quotes Abe Warner as regarding
the company which produces sixty
pictures a year for him to distribute
as the Ford of the Movies — by which
meaning its position in the low
priced field and the profit riding in
the volume rather than in an occa-
sional “smash” hit.
No one who has been a part of or
even on the fringe of the picture busi-
ness for any number of years can scan
this tale of the brothers without find-
ing a lot of meat in it. “The Warner
Brothers trust few people outside
their own camp,” it remarks casually,
“but in each other they have the most
implicit confidence. ‘Warner Brothers
personally,’ as Harry once put it, ‘have
always construed themselves as one.’ ”
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Used in Every Major Studio
Illustrated Literature on request
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• Light Testers — Polishers used
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American Cinematographer 507
What 1937 Has Shown
(Continued from Page 495)
tured a large part of the studio color
still field. This material also is gen-
erally available in most standard pro-
fessional and amateur sizes of roll
and cut film.
In Europe some use of the process
has been made for cinematography in
35mm. as well as the amateur sizes
of 16mm. and 9.5mm. Abroad, too,
a special negative-positive version of
the process has been introduced.
In America, the Dufay Company,
in addition to establishing labora-
tories in several key cities for process-
ing both professional and amateur
color films, has established a central
laboratory where both duplicate trans-
parencies and paper prints from
Dufay originals are made.
Notable improvements in make-up
for natural-color photography have
been evidenced with each succeeding
color film. In addition a special lip
make-up for use in filming night
effects with the new infra-red film
has been evolved.
A new version of the familiar Movi-
ola film-viewing machine was intro-
duced. This added to the familiar
Moviola direct-magnifying viewing a
feature permitting projection of the
picture, right side up and laterally
coirect, on a 5 by 7 inch ground glass
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This new feature was obtained by
adding an auxiliary lamp house which
swings over the regular viewing lens,
which then serves as a condenser,
while the image is projected through
an objective lens into a shadow box
built into the machine and reflected
upward from a spherical mirror to
the ground glass.
This year has seen a change in
sound recording which would have
been utterly inconceivable in the early
days of sound. This is the greater
contractual freedom now enjoyed by
the studios. Regardless of the record-
ing system regularly used by a studio
it is now possible for a sound depart-
ment head to employ any system for
any individual production or sequence
for which he may deem it superior.
This has been done in several in-
Both RCA’s ultra-violet light re-
cording (variable area) and Western
Electric’s “Mirrophonic” push-pull re-
cording systems have become vir-
tually standard, though release prints
as a rule carry conventional rather
than push-pull tracks.
The passing, for legal reasons, of
the Western Electric subsidiary. Elec-
trical Research Products (“ERPI”),
must also be chronicled.
Art Reeves introduced an ultra-
Bardwell & McAlister, Inc.
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508 American Cinematographer
violet glow lamp known as the Lino-
lite. This lamp, for variable-density
recoiding, is constructed so that no
physical slit is needed. The light
source itself is of the requisite size
and shape, and is imaged on the film
as a fine line of light by optical re-
In addition to the advances in Tech-
nicolor processing and the revival of
toning and tinting as already noted,
several important developments have
Complete Studio Equipment
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A new instrument combining the
functions of sensitometer and light-
tester has been developed by Art
Reeves. This device, known as the
Sensi-tester, times its exposures by
means of a pendulum, and meters
the light through fixed diaphragms
from a common light source with
such accuracy that it can be used
interchangeably as a light tester and
as a practical sensitometer.
The same manufacturer has intro-
duced a moderate sized developing
machine which may be used for either
negative or positive film without re-
Another laboratory achievement is
that of two Hollywood firms — Stith-
Noble, Inc., and the Dunning Process
Company — both of which are suc-
cessfully duplicating 16mm. and min-
FOR EVERy PURPOSE
FOR nny effect m
941 n. SaCflmORE flVE.HOLLyllJOOD, CHLIFDRniH
iature camera Kodachrome color film
on a commercial scale.
In the professional field, the mod-
ernization of theatre projection has
been furthered through the installa-
tion of new projectors with high-
intensity lamphouses using “Suprex”
In the sub-standard field the arc
recently made its bow in semi-pro-
fessional 16mm. projectors in France,
where Debrie has introduced a 16mm.
projector for use in large halls and
small theatres. This projector is
equipped with a 15-25 ampere arc,
10-watt push-pull sound amplifier, and
similar professional features.
It may be mentioned that in Europe
16mm. sound-on-film is reported as
being in extensive use in small the-
atres, a use for which it often has
been urged in this country.
In America Ampro recently intro-
duced the Model “L” sound projector
for audiences of 2000 or more. This
projector is equipped with a 750-watt
lamp, an efficient optical system, 55-
watt amplifier, arms to hold 1600-
foot reels, and a still picture device
for educational use.
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— under the operative direction of
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The perfect gift for any movie maker is a Filmo Camera
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AND CHRISTMAS NEVER COMES!
^^EAR afteryear,many a movie-maker
" has been thrilled at the opportu-
nity of shooting Christmas sequences
. . . and has been correspondingly
dejected as he gazed on his results.
For these people, Christmas never
“Oh, well” — they say, “can’t expect
too much when you’re shooting in-
And that’s where they
are wrong !
Because . . . you can get indoor mov-
ies today with just as much brilliance,
depth and detail as you get in your
outdoor shots ... if you load your
camera with Agfa I6mm Fine-Grain
Superpan Reversible Film.
It’s an ideal film for indoor work
because its unusual speed and sen-
sitivity to all colors including red
give your indoor shots greater depth,
brilliance and detail. Its wide latitude
tends to minimize errors in exposure,
and its fine-grain emulsion and anti-
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MADE BY AGFA ANSCO CORPORATION IN BINGHAMTON, NEW YORK
December, 1937 • American Cinematographer 513
See the WESTON at all photographic dealers, or write
for literature . . . Weston Electrical Instrument Cor-
poration, 598 Frelinghuysen Avenue, Newark, N. J.
> METER ^
514 American Cinematographer
Shooting Waterfront as Sherlock Does
By James A. Sherlock, S.A.C.
No Easy Task to Get Results in Titling
By Charles G. Clarke, A.S.C.
Walter Bell Completes 8mm. Reversal
Here’s the Answer 520
BOARD OF REVIEW
Victor Milner, President, A.S.C., Director
of Photography Paramount Studios, Acad-
emy Award Winner 1935
Karl Struss, A.S.C., Director of Photog-
raphy Paramount Studios, Academy Award
Fred W. Jackman, Treasurer American So-
ciety of Cinematographers
Dan Clark, A.S.C., Director of Photog-
raphy Twentieth Century-Fox
Tony Gaudio, A.S.C., Director of Photog-
raphy Warner Brothers Studio, Academy
Award Winner 1937
Ford Designs Mobile Picture Power
Duncan MacD. Little Inaugurates Mo-
tion Picture Program 523
Winter Inc. Opens Up to Date Store. . . .525
Notes of the Movie Clubs 526
Santa Stars in Christmas Continuity. .528
Now’s the Time to Get Busy on Needed
By A. E. Gavin
December, 1937 • American Cinematographer 515
AS SHERLOCK DOES IT
Australian Has Had Abundant
Experience with Kodachrome
By JAMES A. SHERLOCK, S.A.C.
Box 826G, G.P.O., Sydney, Australia
F ogs, bridges, smoking tugs,
cargo boats, coastal boats, dock-
yards, ferries, overseas liners,
sailing boats, wharves, pleasure boats,
harbor lights . . . these are the things
to film in a harbor picture.
Early morning fogs can be com-
menced half an hour before daylight
if there is sufficient light. Your ex-
posure meter and a fast lens will be
necessary here. Take a trip on a
ferry just before dawn on a foggy
morning, include a C.U. of the look-
out man on the ferry and shoot when
you can dimly see such things as
boats, harbor lights and wharves. As
the fog commences to lift the sun can
be seen struggling through the mist.
Use a few feet of film here with the
lens pointing straight at King Sol.
You will get a pleasant surprise when
you view your processed Kodachrome
film. Finish this episode with some
massed white cumulus clouds behind
a bridge, wharf or quayside. This
can be done any time the clouds hap-
pen along, and it will then appear
that they were the result of the fog.
This subject in itself is sufficient for
a whole picture .
Bridges are best Kodachromed from
the land about 200 yards back from one
end and on the sunlit side. If the
bridge does not open to let boats
through wait till a boat goes under-
neath before filming. If it does open
shoot about eight feet of film show-
ing the nearly opened bridge. It is
not necessary to film the whole se-
quence of opening.
Then cut back to the boat, keeping
this boat in the middle of the picture
as it moves toward the opening of the
bridge. When it arrives there stop
panoraming. After the boat slips
through, a few feet of the bridge
closing should be added before the
fade-out. It is not necessary to show
the whole opening and closing process.
Tugs look more businesslike when
they are belching smoke, and the best
shots are to be had aboard a tug that
is helping berth a big ship. The crew
of any boat will help a cameraman
get his pictures, but he must keep out
of their way when serious work com-
If you have your choice of tugs
board the one that is to work on the
bow of the ship. When the liner is
sighted, erect your tripod in a posi-
tion so that the hook to which the
towline is to be attached is in full
view. Then get a picture of the bow
of the liner, its crew throwing the
towrope over the side and follow this
action till the rope is placed on the
tug’s hook and takes a strain.
Get some C.U.’s of the tug’s skip-
per and his crew, the liner coming
alongside the wharf, people waving
and, lastly, the rope being knocked off
the tug’s big hook. If you have a
wide angle lens you will have plenty
of use for it aboard a tug.
Cargo and Fishing Boats
Coastal, cargo and fishing boats are
really the lifeblood of a harbor. They
bring food to feed the city. Show
these by scenes of unloading at their
wharves, as well as all sorts, sizes
and shapes of craft unloading casks,
cases and barrels; the winch man at
work and the cogs starting to move.
Follow this through with a sling in
the air till the load is landed on the
(Continued on Page 532)
Long shots may be made occasionally if a figure, tree or boat may be shown in the foreground. Photographed by James A. Sherlock, S. A. C.
516 American Cinematographer •
NO EASY TASK TO GET
RESULTS IN TITLING FILM
By CHARLES G. CLARKE, A. S. C.
A S winter days come around and
picturemaking outside is cur-
tailed, then the real days of
making “pictures” inside begins. I do
not mean the taking of interior scenes,
but instead the important task of
editing and titling the odds and ends
of scenes made in previous years,
editing and planning so that these
scenes knit together until the final
result is an entertaining picture.
Unfortunately, this is no easy task,
because there is yet no practical de-
vice on the market to facilitate this
Printed titles are so costly as to be
prohibitive to the majority of cine
users, yet, that others may fully enjoy
our films, titling must be done.
Adequate explanations cannot be
made to a group of chattering friends
while the scenes are being screened,
for usually the picture is gone before
the commentator has an opportunity
to get his word in. Besides, dates and
even names are often forgotten after
a few months have passed, and we
fail to remember if it was in May or
September that Baby took her first
Most important to the flow of the
picture narrative is the “bridge” be-
tween scenes that the title supplies.
Instead of having a series of unre-
lated scenes, the same scenes, care-
fully arranged and titled, appear to
have a continuity of story.
Also, the sudden jar of different
backgrounds and even unequal ex-
posure is leveled when a title is
placed between these contrasting
scenes. Now that we agree that
titling should be done, how can w'e
best do it ?
Uses Post Cards
Most of my films are records of va-
cation trips or of scenes made on “lo-
cation” trips or of scenes made while
on “location” in foreign lands. Keep-
ing in mind how they would look as
title backgrounds, I purchase post
cards of the locality I have visited.
These always aie horizontal views,
as they fit the Bell and Howell title
stand which I use.
Being poor at hand lettering, it was
a stroke of luck when I discovered
that small gummed letters were pro-
curable. These letters can be bought
in handy boxed sets of every letter
and symbol ordinarily needed.
They are called “Wilson’s Gummed
Letters and Figures” and are manu-
factured by the Tablet and Ticket
Company, 38 West Forty-fifth street.
New York. They can be bought in
most of the larger stationary stores
in your city.
Size “00” for lower case and size
“0” for capitals are ideal for ordinary
titles, while size No. 1 and No. 2 for
main titles comiilete the assortment.
The letters are cut from glazed white
paper, and are leady to be stuck to
the photo or post card. If the pictures
are light colored or have white areas
in them it is best lightly to spray a
little black ink over them with a fine
Obviously, well colored cards are
ideal when photographed in color and
cut into Kodachrome films. In making
opening titles it is often desirable to
have the same background appear be-
hind the series of main and credit
The titles dissolve over each other
and the title and background fade-in
and fade-out together. This can be
done on any camera in the following
On every roll of film there are per-
forated figures at the end of the
safety-leader about five feet into the
roll, marking the beginning of the
exposable film. After loading the
camera in the regular manner the
lens is removed and the camera is
run until the perforated figures ap-
pear in the aperture.
The counter is set at zero and the
lens replaced to photograph the first
title. As the camera runs, note the
leading of the footage counter as you
fade-in and fade-out. Let us suppose
you have faded-in from 02 feet to
04 feet and have faded-out at 06 feet
Iris Attachments on Market
The fades are made by starting
with the iris diaphragm of the lens
completely closed and is gradually
opened until the correct stop is
reached, or for a fade-out the reverse
maneuver is done. There are “iris”
attachments on the market with which
the effect of the picture closing down
in diminishing circles is obtained.
Whichever of these methods, the
camera is taken to a completely dark
closet and the camera is opened, the
film unthreaded and the exposed film
Making titles with the gummed letters.
American Cinematographer 517
Charles G. Clarke, A. S. C.
wound back on to the unexposed roll,
leader and all.
Now the light may be turned on
and the camera is reloaded, the lens
removed, and again the leader is run
through until the perforated figures
appear in the aperture. The footage
counter is again set at zero, and with
the lens diaphragm closed the film is
run up to two feet before the second
title should begin to fade-in.
In the above case that would be
at 04 feet. The camera is set up be-
fore the second title and, everything
being in order, the camera is started.
For a good dissolve it is best to over-
lap the fade an extra foot, so on our
second title we should start to open
the diaphragm at 05 feet and be
fully opened at 07 feet.
This procedure is repeated for each
title in the series, carefully noting
the reading of the counter for each
fade, being careful also to reset the
counter after each reloading, and hav-
ing the lens closed at all times except
when actual exposure is being made.
After the last title is made the
picture background is then photo-
graphed. Again the film is wound
back on to the starting reel, and the
counter reset at the starting posi-
tion. The background should be
darker when used behind titles so
we should use a full stop smaller
than that at which the lettering was
Starting the camera, we begin to
open the lens at 00, gradually opening
until the correct stop is reached, the
camera continuing to run until the
fade-out of the last title, or preferably
one foot longer, as the white letters
linger through the exposure longer
than the under exposed background.
Adding the extra foot makes the
lettering and background disappear
White on Black
For the procedure I have just de-
scribed white letters are used on
black cards, and a plain picture is
used, except the light portions have
been toned dcwn by spray or soft
pencil. For trick introductory titles
you can purchase a set of letters at
the dime store, sold as “Anagram
Putting your stand in the vertical
position, the letters are arranged so
that the title is upside down to the
In this position, run the camera
for sufficient footage to read the title,
then begin sharply to tap the title
rack, knocking the letters into gen-
eral confusion. After the film is de-
veloped and turned end for end you
will find that the action is reversed
and that on the screen the letters will
maneuver into place in neat lines of
the title matter.
Perhaps you have wished you could
expose your titles over backgrounds
in action. This can be done with suit-
able scenes from your library of films.
Here again scenes should be avoided
which contain white areas, or else
the lines spaced so that they will not
appear over such places. The first
requisite is a frame to hold a small
piece of ground glass in place of the
regular title card frame.
For my title stand, I bought an
additional part, cut out the metal
back, leaving only the frame to hold
the fine ground glass which was cut
to fit. Your projector is now set up
so that it is in perfect line with the
camera lens and center of the ground-
The selected scene is projected on
the glass from the back, and is fo-
cused from the camera side. As the
shutters of the camera and projector
will not open at the identical time
if they are run in the ordinary man-
ner, in order to have a uniform ex-
posure it is necessary to obtain it in
a roundabout manner.
The camera has been loaded with
film that has been previously exposed
to the title of white letters on a
black card. The first frame of the
scene in the projector is set on the
ground glass, and one frame in the
camera is taken, using the trip re-
lease. The hand knob of the projector
is used to bring down the next frame
of the scene, and a single frame pic-
ture is taken of it. This maneuver is
repeated, frame for frame, until the
required amount of footage is ob-
As this is in effect projection print-
ing, various uses may be put to this
method for making dissolves, double
exposures, split screens, etc. You may
also project candid-camera scenes in
black and white and color, and re-
photograph them as title backgrounds.
Gummed letter title on picture background ready for filming.
518 American Cinematographer
• December, 1937
Rear projection for making titles with action backgrounds.
and as summery in appearance as if
it were August.
I show a series of valley scenes and
then jump up to Glacier Point in the
grip of winter. Surely a contrast,
but none the less a part of the record
of Yosemite in Spring. To ease the
jar I say:
“THE VALLEY IS FREE FROM
SNOW, BUT THE HIGHLANDS
ARE STILL WINTER-LADEN.” Not
an especially clever title, but the aud-
ience is prepared for the white scene
that follows. Endless examples will
occur in your pictures where a title
will preserve the continuity from the
preceding scene to one totally differ-
ent that follows.
And by the way, writing titles is a
liberal education in grammatical con-
struction, punctuation and spelling. I
surround myself with dictionary and
Thesaurus and wish that I had been
paying attention in school instead of
doing whatever it is that boys do
Modernistic color effects in motion
may be secured by reflecting prismatic
bands and masses of colored light
on the glass. Incidentally, I have
built a small aquarium to fit the cut-
out frame wherein are photographed
tropical fish and natural history sub-
jects in close-up.
All the above are ideas for the spe-
cial titles, but a subject full of this
kind of title would not only be ex-
pensive but unnecessary. As long as
the subject matter remains along the
same lines, I use a simple white letter
on plain background title, using the
picture background only at the be-
ginning of new “chapters” where the
locale, situation or time element
For the ordinary sub-title neatly
spaced typewritten capital letters on
white paper are the best and simplest
I know. Using positive film which
costs only seventy-five cents a hun-
dred feet, the developed negative is
cut into the picture, thus rendering
white letters on a black background.
When you use negative, the usual
fade-in and fade-out will no longer
work, as if made in the usual way,
the negative will start from clear film
and darken as the title appears.
Of Titles No End
Instead, you must hold a white
card before the title, and as the cam-
era runs, withdraw it, which produces
a “wipe” effect. Slide the card over
again for the “wipe” out. Of course
there are endless variations of mak-
ing titles, using block letters, cellu-
loid letters on grooved boards, etc.,
but unless one has a “special” camera
or a slide over attachment for align-
ing the title, the results are uncertain.
Now what to say on the title. That
is a problem. Some are more clever
than others, and for them it comes
easy. For those less gifted the old
rule “Simplicity is the watchword”
is a good one to follow. The purpose
of the title is to supply information
that cannot be gained from just view-
ing the scene, who persons are, when
anything happened, why and what ax'e
they doing it for. The interesting
facts should be stated in as well
chosen and as few words as possible.
Remember how the National Geo-
graphic captions its pictures ? Theirs
is a good example, the views aptly
but tersely explained, and usually
with a sense of humor.
Your audience appreciates being en-
tertained, and dull, tiresome pictures
can be brightened by sparkling nar-
rative. Avoid being critical or too
witty, however, for a joke once heard
loses its attraction, and after run-
ning it repeatedly we are ashamed of
being its author.
Much can be done to convey the
“mood” of the scene by the choice of
wording. Some of the awesome, grip-
ping grandeur of the Grand Canyon
and Yellowstone can be conveyed to
our audiences if we express that feel-
ing in our titles.
As an example of the ability of
titles to smooth over the sudden
jumps in scenes, may I tell you of a
case I had today? I am titling some
pictures taken in Yosemite last
Spring. At that time the mountains
were covered with snow, but the val-
ley, being 3000 feet lower, was clear
Agfa Issues New 35mm.
Ultra-Speed Pan Film
T hree times faster than regular
high speed films of the “super”
type heretofore supplied, a new 35mm.
film, Ag’fa Ultra- Speed Panchromatic
for miniature cameras, is now being
manufactured by Agfa Ansco Corpo-
ration in Binghamton, N. Y.
Although improvements in film sen-
sitivity have in the past been made a
small amount at a time, the increase
in light sensitivity of this new film is
of such magnitude that exposures may
be made with 1 V 2 lens stops less ex-
posure than was formerly necessary.
Combined with its phenomenal high
speed, Agfa U.S. Pan film has excel-
lent keeping qualities and wide lati-
Agfa Ultra - Speed Panchromatic
will prove ideal for stage photog-
raphy, candid camera work and other
conditions requiring maximum film
speed. The film is available in a
new, reloadable type, 36 - exposure
daylight-loading cartridge or spool.
Also it will be supplied in a 15-ex-
posure darkroom loading length for
all 35mm. cameras; in 27 14 -foot and
55-foot containers of film notched and
tongued for easy division and dark-
room loading in 36-exposure lengths,
and in 100-foot lengths of unnotched
Issues List 1137
Willoughby’s, at 110 West Thirty-
second Street, New York, has issued
its Bargain List 1137, describing new,
shopworn and used cameras, lenses
and accessories for sale. Several hun-
dreds of these are listed.
December, 1937 • American Cinematographer 519
WALTER BELL COMPLETES
8mm. REVERSAL MACHINE
Mr. Bell demonstrated these features
by deliberately stopping the film at
the drying cabinet while the machine
was still in motion, thus throwing
a surplus of loose film in the machine.
Immediately this slack would be
transmitted through the machine to
the feed-in reel, which would stop long
enough to take it up, following which
the tension again would be normal
throughout the entire mechanism.
The builder likewise demonstrated
that by even putting excessive drag on
the film at the feed-in end it would
not tighten up the film in the machine
at any point other than the first loop
or so over the immediate rollers at
the feed-in end.
This machine, like previous 16mm.
models he has built, drives the film
by means of the bottom rollers. At
no place throughout the entire ma-
chine does the emulsion side of the
film come in contact with any surface.
The total thread-up is approx-
At left, upper, showing the top rollers and
main line drive shaft in the developing end
of the machine. Lower, view shows five of
the ten tiers of bottom rollers lifted from the
At right, upper, showing front view of the dry-
ing cabinet with glass doors removed. Lower,
showing rollers which take finished film from
dry box and take up reel that receives film.
I N a recent article we described an
automatic machine for the proc-
essing of 16mm. reversible ama-
teur film which was designed and built
for a local laboratory. We have just
had an opportunity to see in actual
demonstration another machine built
on the same principle, and by Walter
W. Bell, the same man, but for use
in processing stiaight 8mm. revers-
This machine we predict will be the
forerunner of many more machines
that will take their place in the small
and large laboratories of the country
for the mechanical processing of this
new and popular sized amateur film.
The entire unit is compact, taking
up a space less than ten feet in length
by 15 inches in width. It is so con-
structed that all accessories are an
integral part of the machine and with
the developing tanks and drying cab-
inet are mounted on one frame.
Due to the extreme narrow width
of this type film it has been considered
nearly an impossibility to design a
machine that would handle this size
film through all the solutions that are
necessary for the reversing of ama-
teur film without breakage, but appar-
ently Designer Bell has overcome this
At a demonstration given the editor
it was shown the machine is fully
capable of running film through with-
out tension at any point and also
that it is fully capable of compen-
sating for automatic stretch and
shrink to which the film is subjected
during processing and drying.
imately 850 feet of film and the ma-
chine will accomodate 2000 foot feed-
in and receiving reels for the fin-
ished film. It has a capacity com-
pletely to process, polish and dry 1200
feet of 8mm. film an hour and one or
more machines can be operated by
one man, since all the attention neces-
sary is to change film reels every 2000
feet, which may be done without in-
terruption of operation.
The entire mechanism in the devel-
520 American Cinematographer
oping end is made of rust and acid
proof stainless steel, while the dry-
ing cabinet is of metal construction
covered with three-ply veneer. All
main frames and other metal parts
are of Dural metal, while all drive
shafts are carried on precision ball
The air conditioning unit for drying
the film is directly connected to the
drying cabinet and furnishes ample
warm air to dry the film properly.
Since the air is drawn through a spe-
cial design of glass filters there can-
not be any dust or dirt transmitted
to the film during drying.
In the developing end there are ten
separate compartments or tanks to
accommodate the various solutions as
well as different washes that are
necessary for the reversal process.
The time in each of these solutions
and the chemical process set up is
such as to give the best results in the
finished film. These standards have
been set up after careful research and
in cooperation with the manufactur-
ers of 8mm. reversible film.
Mr. Bell states that a machine of
this capacity is well within the reach
of even the smaller laboratories which
now are finishing 8mm. reversible
film by the hand method, and that the
saving effected in labor, space and
chemicals, to say nothing of the su-
perior results in processing, should
quickly pay the initial costs of the
Due to the extreme simplicity of
this unit it can be put in operation
immediately by any laboratory techni-
cian, even without previous expe-
rience in the operation of automatic
developing equipment. The units are
so designed that upon uncrating they
can be in full operation within a few
hours after receipt from the factory.
The only work required to install is
the connection of water, drain, warm
air outlet, and electrical hook-ups.
I have a 9.5mm. Coronet constant-
speed camera. I find my pictures,
when exhibited, seem monotonous,
owing to the fact that it is impossible
to bring about lap dissolves as in pro-
fessional films. My interest in pro-
fessional work has made me keen
whenever possible to duplicate pro-
fessional effects. Could you help me
to do this?— H. D. D., Waverley, N.
The 9.5mm. standard is virtually
unknown in this country, so these
suggestions must be based on experi-
ence with 16mm. and 8mm. rather
than with 9.5. Fundamentally, the
real answer to your question is that
you can’t get professional effects
without professional equipment, or at
least a semi-professional camera like
the (16mm.) Cine-Kodak Special.
Speaking practically, however, there
are some ways of getting around the
limitations of strictly amateur equip-
ment to a greater or lesser extent,
depending upon the capabilities of the
equipment you use, and upon your
own patience and skill.
If, for instance, you use negative-
positive film rather than reversal,
you can make lap dissolves quite
easily in the printer. This is of
course done by overlapping a fade-
out and a fade-in, usually by stop-
ping the printer when the first scene
has faded completely out, rewinding
the positive to the point w^here the
fade started, and then continuing to
print from the negative of the second
scene, beginning of course at the start
of its fade -in.
These fades can be made either in
the camera or, after the negative is
developed, by chemical means. The
same technique applies to making
“wipes” and similar transitions on
the printer. This can be done with
the aid of photographic mattes.
There are also some ways of mak-
ing lap dissolves on reversal film.
Several 16mm. cameras either have
or can be fitted wdth a hand-crank
mechanism which permits winding
back at least enough footage for a
There are at least two films in this
country which have devised back-
cranking attachments for 8mm. cam-
eras as well. It is possible such a
device might be built on to your 9.5;
we cannot state this positively, of
course, as we are not familiar with
the camera. In such an event making
lap dissolves would be simple.
If your camera uses regular spools
of film, or if you can open the charger
or cassette to rewind the film in the
darkroom, you can manage fair dis-
solves by making the first scene and
fading out normally.
Then you may do one of two things:
either rewind immediately or else
place the lens cap on the lens and
run through the footage that will be
required for the second scene of the
pair, after w'hich you can finish the
roll normally, and then rewind either
to a marked starting point before the
start of your first scene or clear to
the beginning of the roll.
Now run off the film, with the lens
tightly covered, until your footage
dial tells you you have reached the
point w'here you started to fade out
on the first scene. Uncover your
lens, and make the second scene, be-
ginning of course with a fade-in.
The chief difficulty of this proced-
ure is of course synchronizing the tw’o
fades that combine to make the lap.
Rewinding to the start of the roll,
and thereafter counting your footage
from a marked frame which must be
in the aperture, you should not have
too much difficulty in this, provided
your camera’s footage counter is rea-
Another method, which helps mini-
mize errors introduced by the rather
inaccurate footage counters with
w'hich most sub-standard cameras are
equipped, is to use a changing bag
such as still photographers use.
In this you can, before shooting
the first scene, notch a starting mark
in the edge of the film and then later,
rewinding in the changing bag, bring
the film back to that easily found
mark, and work onward to your sec-
Much of the difficulty of rewinding
is, of course, eliminated when using
double-run 8mm. cameras, with which
it is only necessary to run the film
through the camera four times in-
stead of twice, and to watch the foot-
age dial very carefully.
Such special effects scenes are easi-
est if made at the start of either the
first or the second run. Many 8mm.
amateurs have by this method made
not only lap dissolves but double and
triple exposure trick shots.
WJLLIAM STULL, A.S.C.
German Film Attendance
According to recent estimates, there
are 46 million persons living in towms
w’hich have motion picture theaters.
Of these, excluding children under six
years of age, 42.5 million are possible
visitors to motion picture theaters,
or 32 million, if those under 15 years
and above 65 years are deducted.
The seating capacity of all motion
picture theaters amounts to 1.9 mil-
lion. Taking into consideration that
those cinemas playing daily give fif-
teen shows a week, on the average,
and that those cinemas which do not
play every day average three shows a
week, there is a yearly seating ca-
pacity of 1,049,361,000. Actual at-
tendance came to about 364,000,000
during the last season.
December, 1937 • American Cinematographer 521
EASTMAX KODAK COMPANY, Rochester, X.Y.
Y Or know how nuich jiictiires mean. . .
how interesting’ it would lie to start a
movie diarv at Christmas. Some member
of the family . . . some valued friend . . . could
ask, and you could give, nothing finer than
movies with Cine- Kodak.
It need not be an expensive gift. It's
getting started with a good camera that
counts, and $84.50 will do the trick with
C'ine-Kodak — the camera every one recog-
nizes as the quality standard. And, teaming
lip with Cine-Kodak for brilliant movies.
Kodascope, the Eastman-made jirojector,
offers the same wide selection — at prices
All i'inv~Kinlalis maliv volor movivs
There’s little to choose between the several Cine-
Kodaks on the count of dependability. Xo corners
are cut to meet a jirice. All are built to make good
movies, simply. All take movies in full-color Koda-
chrome as well as in l)lack-and-\vhite. Prices
advance with “faster" lenses, greater versatility.
So check your (’hristmas list against the eanieras
shown at the right. More than a gift will change
hands when you give a (’ine-Kodak this (’hristmas.
16 mm., /.1. 9,
Special, 16 mm.,
/. 1.9. Booklet
Kiphl, Model 60,
Kcxlak, 16 mm.,
/.1. 9, $125.00
Eifihl, Model 20,
522 American Cinematographer • December, 1937
FORD DESIGNS MOBILE
PICTURE POWER TRUCK
A new mobile motion picture and
photographic power truck, ca-
pable of producing 40,000 watts
of power for lighting purposes,
has been developed and placed in
service by the photographic depart-
ment of the Ford Motor Company.
Developed principally for motion
picture or other camera work under
adverse lighting conditions or for
night work, the new unit carries com-
plete power and lighting facilities for
taking pictures or for projection work
as well as with still cameras, motion
picture cameras, sound projectors and
In locations miles from electrical
current the unit can provide adequate
lighting power for making pictures
or power for projecting moving pic-
Power is generated in a compart-
ment housing a motor generator set
consisting of a Lincoln-Zephyr V-12
engine connected by direct drive to a
40-kw generator at 115-volts. There
is a governor control to keep a con-
stant speed of 1800 rpm.
Some of the many combinations
possible with the new unit describe
its flexibility. The unit crew can lun
one 5,000-watt Klieg lamp 850 feet
from the generator or a cluster of six
5,000-watt Kliegs can be used 600 feet
from the unit or a combination of six
5,000-watt Kliegs, two 1500-watt
floods and one 2,000-watt rifle and
four banks of two each No. 4 photo
flood lamps can be run 450 feet from
the unit at approximate voltage of
Plenty of Cables
In the motor generator compart-
ment are two cable drums for 200
feet each of 4-wire of No. 8 heavy
duty super-service cable (with two
wires connected in parallel) to give
greater electrical carrying capacity
with less physical size.
The drums are fed from the gen-
erator’s distributing panel through an
external female heavy duty plug,
which connects to a male plug in-
stalled inside of the drum, which is,
in turn, connected to the terminated
end of the cable on the drum. There
is a safety belt which can be insert-
ed to stop the drum from rotating
after the desired length of cable is
Carried in the truck are two 100-
foot and two 50-foot heavy duty feed-
er cables to be used as extensions
from the drum cables or can be used
from any other source of electrical
current in places where the truck can-
not be used.
A compartment installed under-
neath the floor of the motor genera-
tor compartment on each side of the
truck is constructed as a drawer that
can be pulled out for easy loading
and unloading of coiled lateral cables
consisting of fifteen 50-foot lengths
of No. 12 super service cable.
Internal swinging doors at the
rear of the truck open into the com-
partments housing the lateral dis-
tributing boxes and cables. There is
a two-inch wooden roll to permit fric-
tionless loading and unloading of
cable. A slot in both internal and ex-
ternal doors permits taking cable
out of compartment with doors closed
in bad weather.
Another compartment behind the
cab of the truck houses motion pic-
ture and associated equipment as well
as photo-flood and photo-flash lamps,
spare lamps for Kliegs, spare fuses,
all electrical equipment, light reflec-
tors and diffusers and “high-hat” tri-
pods and sound projection equipment.
This compartment carries all miscel-
laneous equipment required for field
work and can be used as a field dark
room for emergency loading of plates
and magazines. All compartments
are accessible from both sides of the
Install Lamps on Rail
On top of the truck is a two-inch
wooden lattice platform for good tii-
pod setting in any position. This is
completely surrounded by a 114 -inch
chrome pipe railing supported by ten
standards which also are used for
standards for Klieg lamps. In the
motor generator compartment a rack
carries Klieg light extensions so
lamps can be installed in the railing
standards by removing the knobs on
the platform tip railing.
These consist of four one-foot, three
two-foot and two four-foot extensions.
Klieg lamp tripods are carried on the
A folding platform supported from
the bumpers and fender supports in
front of the truck is used for making
camera shots when the truck is mov-
ing. This is capable of holding a
weight of 600 pounds.
A water and dust proof compart-
ment welded in one piece is situated
(Continued on Page 521)
December, 1937 • American Cinematographer 523
LITTLE'S FILM EVENINGS
HAVE AUSPICIOUS START
To be Held Once Every Month Including
May and Drawing on V/orld Material
T he first two of a series of
eight Motion Picture Evenings,
sponsored by Duncan MacD.
Little, have passed off with success.
The dates of these were October 23
and November 20. The showings
were held at the Littles’ home, in
33 West Sixty-seventh street. New
York. At the first there was present
an interested audience of ten or four-
teen with the “staff” included.
The second of the subscription eve-
nings the attendance was larger than
the first, with indications that before
the end of the series the entertain-
ments will be self-supporting and that
among the features will be sound on
film subjects. There are several on
which Mr. Little has his discriminat-
ing eye. The series for 1937-8 will
close May 7.
The programs are not restricted to
amateur subjects, as an examination
of the screenings will indicate. In
fact, there seems to have been more
from the professional side of the in-
dustry than from the amateur. Los
Angeles was represented on the ama-
teur side the second evening by two
contributions from Dr. Roy E. Ger-
stenkorn, “Japan and Its People” and
“Oriental Wonderland.” The latter is
the story of a steamer trip 1600 miles
up the Yangste, reviewed in last
month’s issue of this magazine.
Surely it will interest all lovers
of motion pictures to examine the
selections Mr. Little will make for
screen material to entertain for two
evenings, especially when it is borne
in mind that for all practical purposes
the product of the world in a film
way is to be found in New York.
The program for the first evening
consisted of three subjects. They
were “Historical New Jersey” (tw'o
reels), by Frank Demarest of Hacken-
sack, N. J.; “The Vagabond,” a
Mutual production featuring Charlie
Chaplin, and “The Lost World,” a
First National picture from a story
by A. Conan Doyle, and featuring
Bessie Love, Lewis Stone, Lloyd
Hughes and Wallace Beery.
This old-timer of a dozen or more
years past still carries interest and
thrills and the model work, depicting
the prehistoric monsters, is realistic
and in many instances quite convinc-
As is usual with “Little Shows,” all
films were set to music, and again
an audience was amazed by the talent
of Elfriede Boeiner, who had never
before seen Demarest’s “Historical
New Jersey,” and had but once
viewed the two other pictures.
“The Lost World” provided excel-
lent opportunity to bring to use much
of her beloved Wagnerian music,
which undoubtedly heightened the in-
terest of the film.
The program ran true to schedule,
for with five minutes between pic-
tures, and a total of nine reels, the
screening was ended and the lights
“on” at just 11 o’clock. It was
smoothly done; and as is the custom,
when the end came, the only reel
needing rewinding was that one just
finished, and still on the projector.
Two projectors were used and the
music was provided by means of a
cleverly concealed set up phonograph
with double turnables and loud speak-
ers concealed in the wainscote below
Two Los Angeles Films
After screening, refreshments were
seived and general conversation en-
The program for the second evening
was of six subjects and of wide vari-
ety, ranging in period from the inaug-
uration of President McKinley to
scenes in Shanghai as late as last
August and September. The program
in detail consisted of:
“Old Time Movies,” from the in-
auguration of McKinley through 1914,
a Castle Films release; “Swiss on
White,” featuring Sonia Henie, dis-
tributed by Nu-Art Filmco; “Japan
and Its People,” made in 1936 by Dr.
Roy E. Gerstenkorn, a Los Angeles
amateur of note; “Oriental Wonder-
land,” the gorges and rapids of the
Yangtse, also made in 1936 by Dr.
Gerstenkorn, this and the preceding
film being exhibited by courtesy of the
“News Parade,” scenes in Shang-
hai, photographed in August and Sep-
tember, 1937, a Castle Films release;
“Bill,” an adaptation of Anatole
France’s “Crainquebill,” Independent
524 Amekican Cinematographer • December, 1937
Scheme of the production of stereoscopic sounds: A. Filming place in a studio. B. (a) Left
microphone, (a') right microphone. Sound is recorded on separate sound tracks: (b) Left
phonogram, (b') right phonogram, (c) screen in the cinema, (C) screen in the cinema, (c) left
group of loud-speakers, (c') right group of loud speakers. Left sound film is reproduced through
a left loud-speaker and right sound film through a right loud-speaker.
background and the leaves in the
Because the human eye is most
accustomed to perception of space, it
is most inclined to perceive an image
as spatial, or three-dimensional. The
eye itself is apt to be deceived and
the task of the motion picture in-
ventor is simply to find that threshold
of perception, those new conditions
which in their time were so happily
discovered when the moving image of
two-dimensional motion picutre pro-
jection was invented.
Kaufman has two frames photo-
graphed with movement of a model
mountain which was deliberately and
carelessly made. And what do we
get? When this pair is selected for
showing the very best stereoscopic is
obtained, an impression is so vivid,
that the model seems to be some kind
of colossal decoration, or mountain,
anything except the modest structure
which was erected on an ordinary
chess board at the time the frames
What an abundance of interesting
opportunities this unfolds before all
forms of cinematography.
Though many notable persons of
history have been photographed for
the motion pictures, they were not
photographed specifically for stereo-
scopic pictures. Yet if while being
photographed they made but one
smooth movement, their image could
now be restored in relief.
Finally, if you yourself were photo-
graphed for motion pictures some time
long ago, then by utilizing scraps of
film of which you have growm tired
you now have every opportunity to
make a stereoscopic portrait of your-
self in your youth.
Soviet Working in New Stereoscopic Pictures
tie is required for us to perceive a
two-dimensional image as a three-
It appears first of all that stereo-
scopic pairs can be selected not only
from among photographs taken with
a camera in movement. Providing
the general background photographed
be more or less stationary, it is suf-
ficient if any kind of object be mov-
In this case also the fifth or sixth
frame produces a stereoscopic effect.
Besides not only this object will ap-
pear stereoscopic in effect, but the
entire setting will very effectively
dissolve into a number of perspective
Among the frames collected there
is one pair which has the trade mark
“Pathe System” on the edge of the
film outside the perforations. Film
manufactured in pre-war days was
given this trade mark. It is known
that photography with movement did
not exist in those days.
This means that the photographs
were taken in the usual way from a
fixed position. When the photographs
were taken there was no wind. If
one frame be superimposed on the
other, then the images of the leaves
fully coincide with each other. Yet
when looking at this pair of frames
through a stereoscope, an excellent
relief is formed.
The whole secret is that the couple
walking in the garden shifted slightly.
This proved sufficient for the eye to
perceive in three-dimensions not only
the walking persons but also the
Ford Designs Truck
(Continued from Page 522
under the equipment compartment for
protection of expensive motion pic-
ture tripods. If the generator is in
use while the truck is in motion, a
small door is opened to cool the gen-
erator and keep it from becoming
oveibeated. There is a locking device
to keep the door open. The door can-
not close to less than a seven-inch
opening without disconnecting the ig-
nition system and shutting down the
The truck is built on a 157-inch
standard Ford V-8 chassis with an
aluminum and steel body hand-built
in Ford shops. The truck fully loaded
weighs approximately seven tons and
has a speed of 55 to 60 miles an hour
using standard truck transmission and
American Cinematographer 525
WINTER INC. OPENS
UP TO DATE STORE
D esigned along lines that best
may cater to tourists as well as
residents of a large center of
population, a photographically mind-
ed population, the new retail store of
Winter Inc. has completed its first
quarter in business. The enterprise
has been a success from the start.
Its location is in the business center
of downtown Los Angeles, at 529 West
Sixth street. The partners conducting
the store are William J. Winter and
H. W. Scarborough. Mr. Winter was
for twelve years with the main East-
man Kodak store in Los Angeles as
assistant manager, having conducted
a store of his own in Portland, Ore.,
prior to that.
Mr. Scarborough has been in the
photographic business for a half dozen
years, in that period having had an
unusually wide experience. His intro-
duction to the craft was in the train-
ing department of the Eastman Kodak
Company in Rochester. From there he
went to Pittsburgh and then to the
San Diego fair. From there he was
assigned to Los Angeles, where in the
Hill street store he was associated
with his present partner, Mr. Winter.
Conveniences for Customers
Several factors have contributed to
the marked success of the new store.
In the beginning the partners frankly
confided their ambition was to estab-
lish one of the finest photographic
stores on the coast. Aside from their
intention to install a full complement
of still and motion picture equipment
they planned to give their customers
a “dated prints” service.
In other words, it was the intention
of the new comers to indicate on the
back of every print the date on which
the work on it was completed, so that
in later years there would be no diffi-
culty on the part of the customer in
establishing practically the exact day
on which he and perhaps his family
were in a certain location. The plan
has proved of real popularity.
Other steps have been taken by the
new company which may have real
interest for those conducting photo-
graphic stores. This is in the de-
partment of dark rooms and projec-
There are two model dark rooms,
each 8 feet by 8. They are, as is the
projection room, air conditioned and
fully equipped in every detail — such
a plant, in fact, as would be installed
in a home by a man commanding
sufficient means to procure what he
One is set up for still negatives,
that is, from 214 to 314 up to post-
card size. On the ledges, conveniently
placed, are printers, enlargers, trays,
etc., suitable for prints from these
negatives. The second darkroom has
equipment accommodating all the
35mm. and miniature negatives and
contains enlargers of various makes,
developing tanks, trays and sponges.
Both of these dark rooms have
sinks with running water. The rooms
are rented by the hour or day and also
are used by the house for demonstra-
tion and sales promotion.
It may interest other dealers that
while of course there is no way of
tracing the amount of direct sales of
extra equipment to these daik rooms
the firm has a feeling approximately
$1000 a month may be credited to the
contact and the good will flowing from
these two 8 by 8 foot rooms.
Tourists have been particularly out-
spoken in their appreciation of the
conveniences provided by the plan.
The results have not been restricted
to the tourists. Possibly a dozen of
the rooms have been installed in the
homes of comfortably situated fol-
lowers of amateur photography.
Agfa Opens Florida Lab
Amateur movie makers living in
the Southeast, and the many visitors
to Florida and Southeastern states
this winter will be glad to know that
faster processing of their amateur
motion picture film has been made
possible by the opening of an up-to-
date processing laboratory at 121
Julia Street, Jacksonville, Fla., by
Agfa Ansco. This laboratory, the most
recent addition to the group of proc-
essing stations which service users of
Agfa reversible motion picture film,
has been constructed with great care
to give rapid yet thorough service.
One-day processing service will be
given in Jacksonville on all Agfa
16mm. and 8mm. Reversible Films.
Propose Government Prizes
Legislation has been proposed in
the Argentine Chamber of Deputies
which would establish permanent an-
nual prizes, to be paid by the Govern-
ment, for various types of Argentine
pictures. The sponsor of the proposed
law is Deputy Marcelino Buyan, who
has stated that the selection of the
best films should not be hampered in
any way by censorship considerations.
There is to be a first prize of 30,000
pesos and a second prize of 15,000
pesos for the best “outdoor” picture
exhibiting the natural beauties of the
country or customs of the people.
Exterior of the new Sixth street store of Winter, Inc., in Los Angeles and a view of the store as seen upon entrance. Air-conditioned dark
and projection rooms are in the rear.
526 American Cinematographer • December, 1937
TlobLdu ihjL 71 /Idvul QlubA.
Los Angeles 8mm
Under the direction of Dr. F. R.
Loscher, the meeting of the Los An-
geles 8mm Club, held in the Audito-
rium of Bell and Howell, 716 North
La Brea, on November 10, 1937, passed
into the history of the club as one of
the most entertaining and important
meetings of the year.
Earl Bell, Dr. Charles I. Nedleman,
R. M. Stern, H. M. Stilley, Miss Doris
Lee, Jack Schenk, Claud T. Smith,
Mrs. C. H. Taber, J. H. Brutsche and
D. D. Layman were elected members
of the organization.
An announcement was made by
President Loscher calling attention
to the fact that tickets were avail-
able to the third annual Club Banquet
to be held at the Victor Hugo on Sat-
urday night, December 11, and must
be purchased on or before December
9. Tickets are $1.50 a plate.
The secretary was called on to
read correspondence received from
various points on queries regarding
8mm equipment, proving that our
club is known all over the world.
Members were reminded the ban-
quet held in December was also to
take the form of our final contest of
the year and members were urged
to have a film ready by December 4
Owing to the tremendous increase
in membership of late. President
Loscher announced the membership to
the club would temporarily be closed.
The surprise preview of the evening
was next shown — a kodachrome pic-
ture filmed by William Stull, A. S. C.,
honorary member, showing the vari-
ous types of railroads. This picture,
which is to be sent to England, proved
to be of great interest.
The 1937 annual nominating com-
mittee having selected nominees for
the various club offices for 1938, mem-
bers were requested to cast their
votes in the foyer during the inter-
mission. After a check and double
check by the voting committee, C. G.
Cornell, chairman of the News Items
of Interest Committee, was unani-
mously elected as the new leader for
the ensuing year. For vice president,
Dr. Jack H. Taylor accepted the office
and the ever important office of sec-
retary is to be ably filled by Bion
\ ogel. Bill Wade was selected for the
trusted custodian of the treasury.
Following the election we were
privileged to view a 2000 foot picture
of the British Isles filmed by a past
president of the Los Angeles Cinema
Club, Fred Champion. The film was
illuminated by injected remarks over
a microphone by Mr. Champion. Very
few of the sights and pleasures were
overlooked at the historical coro-
nation or the rest of the trip, which
took us to Scotland, England and
France. We deemed it a special
privilege to have been able to view
this outstanding film.
M. R. ARMSTRONG, Secretary.
Cinema Club of the Oranges
A T A special meeting held for the
purpose, the Cinema Club of the
Oranges screened the winning films of
the New Jersey amateur motion pic-
ture contest. This annual event is
TO OUR ADVERTISERS
T he AMERICAN CINEMA-
that beginning with its January
issue it will be increased in size
from 8 by 11 inches less trim to
9 by 12 inches less trim.
The type columns will be
lengthened to 10 inches. This
of course will be exclusive of
the usual 2 picas allotted to the
The columns will be widened
from 13 picas to 14 picas (2J/^
The page width will be in-
creased from 41 picas to 44
picas (7 1/5 inches).
We are convinced this in-
crease to a more standard mag-
azine size will give our adver-
tisers, especially those using
larger space, better opportunity
to tell their story and at the
same time in some instances
will mean definite economy for
them through avoidance of hav-
ing made special plates to fit
This is the first time in the
seventeen years of its publica-
tion The American Cinematog-
rapher has changed the size of
sponsored jointly by the club and the
Newark Sunday Call.
The awards were: First, “Vacation
by the Gallon,” William J. Murphy;
second, “Six Gun Justice,” Vernon
Lewis; third, “Giralda Galaxy,” Dr.
Nelson W. Lockwood; honorable men-
tions, “Nature’s Floral Symphony,”
Ralph Perkinpine; “1500 Miles through
Historyland,” H. E. Shannon. These
constituted the projection program.
Albert E. Sonn, president of the
Newark Cinema League, representing
the Newark Sunday Call, made the
awards to the prize winners of $50,
$20, and $10, respectively.
All other films entered in the con-
test will be screened and criticized at
the November meeting of the club.
The December meeting, or Ladies’
Night, will be held at the home of
William T. Vanderlipp, club presi-
dent. Selected films of members will
be screened, followed by refreshments.
At the annual election the follow-
ing were chosen: President, William
T. Vanderlipp; vice president, Warren
E. Matthews; secretary, William J.
Murphy; treasurer, Leo E. Leichter.
Inquiries concerning membership
should be made to the membership
chairman. Dr. Nelson W. Lockwood,
160 Prospect St., East Orange, N. J.
Charles G. Clarke, A.S.C.,
Entertains Par Movie Club
T he Paramount Movie Club held
its November meeting in Projec-
tion Room 7 on the 11th. President
Corneal announced the rules of the
coming club contest. The feature of
the evening was the showing of
16mm. films by Charles G. Clarke,
A. S. C., both in black and white and
in color, he had exposed in the Yel-
lowstone, Yosemite and in Mexico.
It was a return engagement on the
part of the professional. As in the
first instance, the entertainer em-
ployed a musical accompaniment,
which again added to the thorough
enjoyment of the show.
The Mexican film was of unusual
quality in its revelation of the life
and customs of the people of the coun-
try. An example was the filming of
a bull fight, in which the technique
of the “sport,” or the approved rou-
tine through which the participants
proceeded in the killing of the bull,
December, 1937 •
American Cinematographer 527
was explained and demonstrated in
action and in titles. It was all of rare
One of the unnsual phases of the
showing w'as the opportunity afforded
to note the marked advance in the
Kodachrome of today over its prede-
cessor of but a comparatively short
period ago — “about as fine as can be
now,” as the cameraman expressed it.
Indianapolis Will Hold
Two Meetings Each Month
Organized last summer, the Indian-
apolis Amateur Movie Club moves
into the fall season with a schedule
of two meetings a month, the first
and third Wednesday evenings. These
are scheduled for the Claypool Hotel.
The club’s announced purpose is
“for the promotion and encourage-
ment of amateur moviemaking
through education, discussion and con-
The officers are John R. Fish, pres-
ident; Dr. D. A. Musselman, vice-
president, and Alfred F. Kaufman,
secretary-treasurer. The directors are
the foregoing and H. B. Durbin,
James N. Genders, Bernard S. Gross,
Chester W. Hutson, and Jack Mess-
Philadelphia Cinema Club
T he November meeting of the
Philadelphia Cinema Club was
devoted entirely to a review of the
members’ films offered in the vacation
contest. The meeting was restricted
to members only, 45 being present and
The new rating sheet was seen for
the first time, and worked out ad-
vantageously. In the order of awards
the films and authors were:
“Idle Days,” A. L. O. Rasch; “Grand
Canyon,” George Pittman; “The Least
of These,” R. W. Bugbee; “Hykes
Hellions,” Mrs. Adelaide Hykes; “Au-
tumn Painting,” Dr. B'owersox; “Lure
of Northlands,” F'. N. Hirst; “Yosem-
ite,” Dr. Hykes; “Autumn Gold,” the
Rev. Mr. Vandenborch.
It will be noted the great majority
of the films as evidenced by their
titles were based on outdoor color.
All the films were in Kodachrome,
and it so happens that for the first
time there were more 8mm. ’s offered
The film entitled “Hykes’ Hellions,”
while in fourth position insofar as
general averages w'ere concerned, was
probably the best offered on the basis
of actual story and the fact it w^as
partly taken indoors and partly out-
doors. The handling of the colors and
the balance of colors was very well
done in this film.
The excellency of photography, the
almost perfect settings, the handling
of titles and the general excellence
of cutting put the films in first, sec-
ond and third place far above the
others in these counts.
The members present were really
impressed at some of the grandeur
that developed in these films. Com-
pared with the efforts of the members
when the club first started it is evi-
dent much has been learned, and that
there has been considerable develop-
ment in the art of amateur photog-
B. N. LEVENE,
Chairman Publications Committee.
Honolulu Club Growing
The Honolulu 8mm. Movie Club is
an established institution, having now
been organized for three months. Vic-
tor E. Clark, secretary-treasurer, re-
ports that for the first two meetings
about twenty persons attended. The
other officers are Francis C. Williams,
the prime mover of the enterprise,
president, and Harry H. Hutchinson,
Meetings are held the first and
third Tuesdays of each month at 7:30
p.m. in Central Y. M. C. A.
Tourists visiting the islands who
also are amateur photographers are
invited to attend meetings and to
w’l’ite the secretary through Box 2741,
Honolulu, for information. Visitors
possessing films that may be of inter-
Color an Advantage
Shooting Steel Mills
(Continued from Page 501)
some of the rushes of this film have
become enthusiastic over the idea of
making a dramatic film, also in color,
of similar subject-matter.
Such a film offers excellent possi-
bilities for drama, even if strict truth-
fulness requires the elimination of
many of the stock conceptions of
steelmaking and steelmakers which
have been used so often in film fiction.
Such a film, done in color, certainly
would offer a cinematographer envi-
able opportunities for pictorial effect.
In that connection, too, there is the
added advantage of working in color
in Technicolor’s system of recording
all details of how every shot is made.
The data gained making our scenes
would be at the disposal of any cine-
matographer assigned to such a film
in the future. With it, and with the
reassurance of the standardized ef-
ficiency of the modern arcs we used
for Technicolor lighting, technical
problems would be minimized, and the
cinematographer could be free to con-
centrate on bringing out the immense
pictorial possibilities opened to him in
filming this unusual subject in color.
est to the members are invited to
bring them along.
Phantom of the Desert
When an amateur photographer recorded better than he knew — in fact, he didn’t discover what
he had until his original 2V4 by 3V4 was raised to 5 by 7. Then he saw the phantom, if a phan-
tom may be seen, riding that cloud over Mojave Desert that November Sunday — a glorious
view that had impelled him to stop his car and collect a pale imitation of it. The picture was
taken from the highway south of Mojave. The phantom is just over Goldtown, the gold mining
community near the desert town. By the aspect of that right eye its owner may have visited
the miners’ camp the night before. Photographed and copyrighted 1937 by George Blaisdell.
528 American Cinematographer • December, 1937
SANTA STARS IN CHRISTMAS
P RACTICALLY all of us make
Christmas movies. But most of
them, after they’ve been shown a few
times, grow as uninteresting as last
week’s newsreel, and land on the
shelf. The trouble is that most
Christmas movies are, like newsreels,
made as “spot news” subjects, and
contain little to give them lasting ap-
peal to audiences.
That appeal can be put into them
with surprising ease. Here, for ex-
ample, is a simple continuity built to
expand an average family’s Christmas
news film into a story. These addi-
tional scenes won’t add greatly to
either the film footage or your filming
problems, but they add a touch of
story to your routine holiday scenes
and embellish the result with camera
trickery that will interest any audi-
Adapted to Family
The exact details of the story are
of course intended to be adapted to
the individual requirements of the
family creating the film, and many
changes can be made without weaken-
The Kiiio-Hypar F :2.7 -F :3
series are Goerz Precision
Lenses which give yon that
clear-cut crisp lirillianey so
essential in good movie mak-
ing. They are made in focal
lengths from 15mm. to 100
mm. and can he fitted in suit-
able focusing mounts to ama-
teur and professional movie
ing the basic idea of making the holi-
day film a photoplaylet.
Main title; “Santa Comes to the
Sc. 1 — Close-up of calendar, reading
Sc. 2 — Close-up of clock, pointing
to 7 o’clock.
Sc. 3 — Longshot of front door,
from inside. The door opens and
Father comes in. He carries several
bundles, and is obviously very tired.
He looks carefully around.
Sc. 4 — Medium longshot of a hall
door. Mother looks through, and nods.
Sc. 5 — Night effect close shot of
Junior, in bed and asleep.
Sc. 6 — Same as Scene 3. Mother en-
ters from beside the camera, and
takes Father’s parcels, while he takes
off his coat.
Sc. 7 — Close-up of Father. He
Title — “Just a cup of coffee while I
rest a minute. Then I’ll decorate the
Sc. 8 — Same as Scene 7. Father
In every step of
Goerz Effect Device, the
Goerz Variable Field
View Finder and the
Goerz Reflex Focuser are
useful and precise instru-
ments that enhance the
pleasures of amateur
Address Dept. AC-12
Sc. 9 — Longshot in living-room.
Father enters, picks up the paper and
sits down in a chair by the fireplace.
Sc. 10 — Close shot of Father. His
newspaper drops, and it is seen he is
drifting off to sleep.
Sc. 11 — Longshot of the fireplace.
Father, asleep in his chair, is seen at
one side. Suddenly, directly in front
of the fireplace, Santa Claus appears.
Sc. 12 — Close-up Santa. He looks
around and sees Father.
Sc. 13 — Close-up of Father, sound
Sc. 14 — Same as Scene 12. Santa
nods, smiles, and looks toward the
other side of the room.
Sc. 15 — Longshot of the place the
Christmas tree is to stand.
Sc. 16 — Medium shot of Santa. He
reaches his hand toward the spot
shown in the previous scene and
makes a mystic pass.
Sc. 17 — Same as Scene 15. Sudden-
ly a Christmas tree, not decorated,
Sc. 18 — Longshot, from near tree.
Father and Santa are in background.
Santa walks toward the camera, ob-
viously studying the tree to decide
how it should be decorated. As he gets
close to the camera he reaches for-
ward and makes another mystic pass.
Sc. 19 — Same as Scene 17. One by
one the decorations suddenly appear
on the tree. The scene continues until
the Li'ee is about half decorated.
Sc. 20 — Close shot of Mother’s feet
approaching along the hall.
Sc. 21 — Close shot of Santa. He
looks up, hears the footsteps and dis-
Sc. 22 — L( igshot, past Father to-
ward the door. Mother enters with a
cup of coffee. She :•( es Father a.leep,
and tiptoes to leave the cup on the
table, then tiptoes out.
Sc. 23 — Same as Scene 21. Santa
suddenly reappears and turns back to
Sc. 24 — Same as Scene 19. The dec-
orations continue to appear until the
tree is completely decorated.
Sc. 25 — Longshot of Santa. He eyes
the tree approvingly. Then he reaches
his hand out in midair, and in it sud-
denly appears a well-filled sack of
presents. He looks into it and sets it
Sc. 26 — Medium close shot of the
tree. The presents slide into the pic-
C.P. GOERZ AMERICAN OPTICAL COMPANY
317 EAST 54 th street: NEW YORK CITY
American Cinematographer 529
ture and group themselves around the
Sc. 27 — Close-up of Santa. He
beams, well satisfied with his work.
Sc. 28 — Longshot, Santa walks past
table toward the fireplace. He sees
the cup of colfee, picks it up, and
drinks it. Then he walks over to
Father and makes another mystic
pass. Father abruptly disappears.
Sc. 29 — Night effect longshot in the
family bedroom. Mother is already in
bed and asleep. Suddenly Father ap-
peals n his place in bed.
Sc. 30 — Medium longshot of Santa.
He drains the last bit of coffee and
replaces the cup on the table. Then
he turns toward the fireplace, and as
he walks toward it, vanishes. FADE
Sc. 30 — F’ADE IN. Close-up of
alarm clock, pointing to 7 A. M.
Sc. 31 — Fullshot of living-room
door. Mother, Father, and Junior
enter, stop, and all three look toward
Sc. 32 — Longshot of the Christmas
tree, fully decorated and lighted.
From this point, cut in your regular
Christmas movie scenes, especially
shots showing the family opening
their presents. Junior has an electric
If possible get several shots of
him playing with it, to be intercut
with close shots of Father looking
wistfully at the train, as though he
would like to piay with it. too. At
the end of your regular Christmas
news scenes carry on the continuity
Sc. 33 — Close-up of alarm clock
Ijointing to 7 or 8 P. M. This is a
night-effect shot, and one of Junior’s
presents should be be.side the clock.
Sc. 34 — Longshot in the living
room. Father and Mother are both
sitting, reading. Father gets up and
walks over- lo where the train is still
Sc. 35 — Medium close shot of the
train layout. Fatehr squats on the
floor and starts to play with the train.
Sc. 36 — Longshot past the fireplace,
with Father playing with the train in
the background. Suddenly Santa ap-
pears. He walks over to Father, and
Sc. 37 — Close-up of Santa. He
speaks to Father.
Title — “Mind if I play too? I’ve
always wanted to, but I’ve been so
busy — !”
Sc. 38 — Same as Scene 37. Santa
Sc. 39 — Twoshot, Father and Santa.
Father nods absently, then turns
with enthusiasm and points out some
interesting action of the train. They
both fall to playing happily. FADE
OUT.— THE END.
The various appearances and dis-
appearances in these scenes will mys-
tify most audiences, but they are
very simple. It is only necessary to
set the camera on a firm tripod, and
shoot the scene quite normally up tc
the time the person or thing is to
ippear or vanish.
Then stop the camera while the
thing that is to appear is put in
place, and then restart the camera
and finish the scene normally. The
camera must not move a fraction of
an inch between these two parts of
the shot, and of course everything in
the scene must also be in identically
the same place and position in both
parts, so that there will be no slight-
est “.I'ump” on the screen.
In scenes where things appear or
disappear while actors are in the
scene it is necessary for the actor
to “freeze” — hold himself motionless
— while the apparition is put in place
or removed, as the case may be. Some
rehearsal of this is necessary, so that
the actors can time themselves to be
in easily held positions when the
time comes to “freeze.”
This is, of course, the way Santa
picks his sack out of empty air. He
simply reaches out his arm and
“freezes.” Then the sack is put in
his hand, and camera and action con-
tinue to finish the scene normally.
Modified Stop Motion
Making the tree decorate itself is
done in much the same way, by a
modified stop-motion. Expost a few
frames of the undecorated tree. Then
stop the camera and put the first or-
nament in place. Take a few more
frames, stop, put in the next orna-
ment, expose some more, and so on.
Obviously, a tripod is necessary, but
otherwise these tricks are simple.
If you happen to own a camera
equipped to wind back for lap dis-
solves you can add finesse to your
appearances and vanishings. You
shoot the scene quite normally up to
a point just a bit before the appear-
ance. Then fade out.
Next, wind the film back to the
point where you started the fade,
just as in any lap dissolve. Put the
person who is to appear in place and
finish your scene, fading in. This
way, as you probably have seen in
such films as “Topper,” the person
slowly fades in (or out) while the
rest of the scene remains unchanged.
Santa, appearing this way, would
for instance begin as a very shadowy
wraith, through which the fireplace
could be clearly seen. Quickly his
body would gather solidity, until fin-
ally he appeared quite normal.
These tricks are all simple, and,
with the exception of lap-dissolved ap-
pearances, can be done with any cam-
era. If they are well done, they will
mystify non-technical audiences, and
interest every audience. And how the
children will enjoy them!
Germany Wants Features
According to the latest estimate of
the Institute for Business Research
Germany’s requirements for long fea-
ture films amount to 200-220 annual-
ly. For the current season, 180-200
long feature films are available, on
the basis of announcements up to this
Apparently Germany will again be
short of long feature films in the
Makes Splicing Easier!
For 8mm. & 16mm. Films
•A new fast dry splicer for
8inm and 16tnm films. Pre-
cision built assuring perfect splices. Features
dry scraper, improved cement applicator, and
scratchproof film grips. Sff il today —
At your dealer or write
Wholesale Movie & Photo Supplies
1435 No. Highland Hollywood, Calif.
8MM. and 16MM. COMPLETELY
AUTOMATIC REVERSAL EILM DEVELOPING
These machines are engineered to insure freedom from film breakage —
Give better quality processing — Greater volume work — in less time and
at a labor saving that will soon re-pay the investment.
Capacity 1,200 feet to 2,000 feet per hour.
Also 16mm. and 35mm. negative and positive developing machines.
BELL AUTOMATIC CINEMA MACHINES
1436 BEL\CHWOOD DRIVE, HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA
530 American Cinematographer • December, 1937
NOW'S THE TIME TO GET
BUSY ON YOUR SPLICING
Sales Executive Explains How
Best to Master Hooking 'Em Up
By A. E. GAVIN
T he long winter evenings ahead
present an opportunity for
most moviemakers to catch up
on their editing and splicing and to
add that editorial touch so necessary
to the success of all home movies.
Your films are really never complete
until they are carefully edited and
titled and the assortment of “shots”
or scenes spliced together on one or
more master reels.
With the ranks of home movie
makers greatly increased during the
past year, many have yet to purchase
their splicing and editing equipment.
If you are one of these embryo movie-
makers you may be interested in a
few pointers regarding splicers and
Your selection of a splicer will,
naturally, depend upon the amount
you wish to invest, but for the aver-
age amateur, there are two or three
low-priced splicers on the market that
give excellent results. The splicer
you select should enable you to make
splices with accuracy and a minimum
The emulsion removing tool should
be easy to use and positive in results.
The “dry” type scraper, which elim-
inates need for moistening the film,
will prepare a better bonding area
and prevent damaging adjoining film
area as is so often the case where
water is applied to film before scrap-
One of the newest, and perhaps one
of the simplest, cine film splicers is
1. W'ith emulsion or dull side up, place both
sections of film on splicer over the guide and
tension pins so that ends to be cut extend over
the trimming edges. Clamp down left pressure
2. Depress cutting blade, trimming both ends
of film accurately in one operation. Leave cut-
ting blade in lowered position until after splice
is completed !
3. Remove emulsion from protruding end of
left film section with a few strokes of dry
scraper. No need to moisten film. Make sure
to remove all trace of emulsion to insure a
I. Raise right film section from pins and move
to left one frame or until it overlaps area
and, holding up overlapping end, apply ce-
ment to scraped area and clamp down right
5. Release both pressure bars after about
thirty seconds; remove film from splicer and
proceed with next splice.
Process of splicing 8mm or 16mm film with
particular device described, beginning at top.
the Seeniann, moderately priced and
capable of splicing accurately and
securely either 8mm or 16mm film.
Special features consist of a dry
scraper — particularly efficient on the
heavier and more tenacious color
emulsions, spring tension pins for
holding film in place, and new style
square cement bottle, with improved
applicator, set into splicer base where
it cannot rotate nor overturn.
Have Your Kewinds
Besides your splicer you also should
have a pair of film rewinds for spool-
ing your film as you splice. Some
amateurs use their projector for hold-
ing reels while splicing, but such an
arrangement does not provide the easy
winding facilities of regular rewinds.
In splicing your films, it is advisable
to work with the spliced sections at
your left, moving the film from right
to left as each splice is completed.
In working with the Seemann both
sections of film to be spliced are
placed on the device with the emul-
sion or “dull” side up, so that the
ends to be cut are over the trimming
edges. The clamp is snapped in place
to hold film over pins and to provide
guide for emulsion scraper.
Cutting blade is then depressed to
trim both sections of film at one op-
eration. The emulsion is next removed
by a few strokes of the dry sciaper.
The right section of film is then
moved to the left until it overlaps
the scraped area and, holding up the
overlapping end, cement is applied to
the scraped area and the right pres-
sure bar clamped in place to complete
the splice. The pressure bars are
left in clamped position for about
thirty seconds to allow film cement
It’s as simple as all that! In fact,
its really fun. And after you’ve once
accustomed yourself to the use of
your splicer you will never again leave
those fifty and one hundred foot rolls
of film lying around un-edited!
Slow Drying Best
Some beginners often make the
mistake of applying too much cement
to their splices, resulting in an untidy
splice which hampers smooth projec-
December, 1937 •
American Cinematographer 531
tion. Also, too much cement has a
tendency to dissolve and weaken the
film at the splice, ultimately causing
it to break during projection. A
neater and more durable splice will re-
sult if a moderate amount of cement
is used. When pressure is applied, the
cement will spread over bonding area
As many of the film cements on the
market vary in formula they natu-
rally give different results. Some dry
more rapidly than others. For the
average beginner, the slow drying ce-
ment is best, for it enables him to
obtain better results due to its slower
but more permanent curing quality.
Should your splices fail to hold, it
may be due to one or more of the
following causes; Oily or dirty film;
bonding area not thoroughly cleaned
of emulsion; too much cement; in-
sufficient time allowed for cement to
It is advisable to experiment with
a few pieces of scrap film before
commencing to splice your valuable
films in order that you may acquaint
yourself with operation of your
splicer. Practice trimming film and
removing emulsion as well as apply-
ing cement in just the right quantity.
To prevent marring your film with
fingermarks it is advisable to wear a
pair of cheap white light-weight cot-
ton gloves, obtainable at most any
When your splicing is completed
and your newly edited film projected,
you will agree that careful editing
and splicing are equally important
as any other phase of home movie-
San Francisco Cinema
O UR next regular meeting will be
held Tuesday night, Nov. 30, at
the California Camera Clubrooms, 45
Polk Street, at 8 o’clock sharp .
According to the By-Laws, Article
VIII, Section 1, reads: “At the No-
vember meeting in each year the
members shall elect a nominating
committee of five members, who shall
present nominations for officers and
directors at least five days before tbe
time fixed for holding the December
meeting. Tbe list of such nominees
shall be sent to all members prior to
the December meeting. Further nom-
inations may be made at the meeting
by any member. Election, if more
than one candidate for any office be
nominated, shall be by ballot.”
Our program this month covers a
very important phase of movie mak-
ing; a very interesting and helpful
talk on “Editing Your Films,” given
by our Past President, K. G.
In addition. Member William Grant
will show three 400-foot reels of
16mm. Kodachrome and Member H.
T. Kelly will show the final two reels
of his 8mm. Kodachrome vacation
E. G. PETHERICK, President.
Stith-Noble to Release
Tournament of Roses Film
The Stith-Noble Corporation, re-
cently removed to new and larger
quarters at 645 North Martel Avenue,
Hollywood, announces this year it
again will release a Kodachrome film
of Pasadena’s famous Tournament of
Roses. The film will be a 16mm. sub-
ject approximately 200 feet in length,
and the release is scheduled for Jan-
uary 5 next.
Full-color Kodachrome copies of the
film will be offered for sale through
all dealers. This firm has within
slightly more than a year developed
a process of duplicating 16mm. and
35mm. Kodachrome films. The forth-
coming picture will be made in color
by this process.
A German-Japanese accord which
provides for the exchange of cultural
and educational films between the two
countries was signed recently by the
International Cinema Association of
Japan and a representative of the Ger-
man Propaganda Ministry, according
to reports published in Tokyo and re-
ported to the Department of Com-
645 North Martel Ave., Hollywood, Calif.
8 jg®'' 16 8
Geo. W. Colburn Laboratory
Special Motion Picture Printing
1197 MERCHANDISE MART
SPLICER and REWINDS
CRAIG JUNIOR COMBINATION $8.50
Junior Splicer with two geared rewinds
all mounted on 21" board.
CRAIG MOVIE SUPPLY CO.
1053 So. Olive St. Los Angeles, Calif.
Afga Ansco Issues Book
on Developing Processes
A profusely illustrated, sixty page
booklet, “Developing and Printing
Made Easy,” has just been published
by Agfa Ansco Corporation of Bing-
hamton, N. Y. Covering all phases of
developing and printing, this new
Agfa booklet has been designed to
serve both as an instruction manual
for the beginner and a reference for
the advanced amateur.
Included with the discussion of de-
veloping, contact printing and enlarg-
ing are such topics as contrast, tem-
perature control, reduction and inten-
sification, washing and drying, selec-
tion of paper and projection control.
Also given in the booklet are lists
of necessary equipment for home
finishing, tables of causes and remi-
dies of finishing troubles and recom-
mended formulas for developers and
other processing solutions. The new
booklet, a companion in size and style
to Agfa’s “Better Photography Made
Easy,” lists at 25 cents and may be
obtained from your photographic
dealer or by writing Agfa Ansco
RINGING IN HEALTH
The 1937 Christmas Seals
The National, State, and Local Tubercu-
losis Associations in the United States
632 AMERICAN Cinematographer
• Decembei', 1937
As Sherlock Does It
(Continued from Pagre 515)
wharf. Little boats are darting to
and fro on the water. There is plenty
of action and human interest here and
fui'ther use for a wide angle lens.
Dockyai-ds are more attractive if
there is a well known boat in dry
dock. Open with a shot taken under
the bows of the boat looking sky-
ward, showing the name of the boat.
Then again from the floor of the dock
show cranes working with the sky as
The most attractive . shot will be
of the propellers and rudder with
men working on them. Try to get
them in the sunlight, as Kodachrome.
has a bluish tint if taken in shadow.
An interesting episode in a drydock
is when the valves are opened to let
the water flow back in the dock.
Open this sequence with a ferry
boat coming toward the camera, which
has been placed on a wharf, with
close-up of the* rope being thrown
on to a pile and people boarding the
boat. When this is taken the camera-
man does likewise.
Shoot down at the same pile with
the rope being lifted off and the wharf
receding as your boat pulls out. This
will make a smooth continuity. If
any interesting shots are to be filmed
while the ferry is moving, a film speed
of 32 frames per second will give a
more even picture than the normal
speed of 16 frames per second. If
the names of the wharves you stop
at are to be seen, photograph them,
and get a few pictures of a similar
ferry to the one you are on, that is
if you pass one. Finish this sequence
with a fade-out as your ferry leaves
you on a wharf.
This sequence would have to be
made to suit local conditions. Here
in Sydney there are races held each
weekend for sailing boats known as
16-footers and five or six thousand
spectators follow the races on large
ferries, the roof of which can be used,
with permission of the skipper, to
erect a tripod.
Using a two-inch lens these small
boats make an attractive picture when
they commence their race and when
they turn around the buoys. Speed
boats are best photographed when
making a turn or at the finish of a
Consult Shipping Index
You will save a lot of time if you
read the shipping index in the daily
REBUILT SILENCED AND STANDARD
BELL & HOWELL 170° CAMERAS—
rebuilt B & H sound printers, rebuilt
Duplex sound and picture printers ; pair
used Simple.x portable sound projectors
with 2000 ft. magazines. Used Mitchell cam-
ei’as, Fearless Blimps. Bell & Howell 1000
ft., 400 ft. magazines. Motors, sunshades,
finders, lenses and all accessories.
Write, wire or cable:
MOTION PICTURE CAMERA SUPPLY. INC.
723 Seventh Avenue
New York City
Cable : Cinecamera Telephone : BRyant 9-77.5^4
BELL & HOWELL 6-WAY SOUND PRINTER.
Generators. Panel Control Boards, Duplex
Printers, Sound Moviolas, Developing Ma- '*
chin^. Blimps, Dolly, B & H splicers, Mit-
chell’ and B & H Silent Cameras, Motors,
High-Speed Gear Boxes, Light Testers, c"
Projection and Lighting Equipment. Guar-
anteed optically and mechanically perfect. ,
Send for 1937 Bargain Catalogue. Holly-
wood Camera Exchange. 1600 Cahuenga
‘ Blvd., Hollywood, California. Cable Ho-
WE BUY, SELL AND RENT PROFESSION-
AL AND 16mm EQUIPMENT NEW AND
USED. WE ARE DISTRIBUTORS FOR
. ALL LEADING MANUFACTURERS.
RUBY CAMERA EXCHANGE. 729 Seventh
Ave., New York City. Established since 1910.
SILENCED Standard Mitchell Camera, serial
number above 200 ; 40, 60, 76 mmT' Pan .
Tachar Astro lenses; upright MitchelPfinder ;
two 1000-foot magazines or four-400 foot
magazines ; Mitchell tripod and friction head
and cases ; perfect mechanical condition.
FAXON DEAN, INC., 4516 Sunset Boule-
vard. Hollywood, Calif.
CINE KODAK SPECIAL, complete, S289.60;
SOF Victor 25, complete, amplifier, speaker,
1189.60. Simplex 35mm. SOF RCA Sound,
$325 : 16mm. Steineman electric printer,
motor, ,$73 ; 35mm. DeVry Movie Camera
f3.5, $55, with fl.5, $100; 35mm. DeVry SOF
Projector, complete, portable. $189.50 ; 9x12
ft. Screen, $14 ; 35mm. LIK DeBrie Movie
Camera, f3.5 lens, case, 3 magazines, $165.
Trades accepted. 8-16mm. Silent, Sound
Library. Catalogs Free. House of Satisfac-
tion, MOGULL’S, T944AC Boston Road.
BELL & HOWELL silenced 35mm. standard
camera with I-type shuttle, 1000 ft. maga-
zine, two 400 ft. magazines. 40mm., 50mm.,
80mm.. F :2.7 Zeiss lenses, 150mm. Bausch
& Lomb F :4.5 lens, accessories, Akeley fric-
tion tripod, motor, carrying cases, at $1276.
BASS CAMERA CO., 179 W. Madison St.,
DEBRIE CAMERA, Parvo, 8 magazines, tri-
pod and cases, $1200.00 cost will sell for
$200.00 almost new, bargains in 16-35mm
cameras. We Buy Anything. Block Cam- i!
era — 154 E. 47th St.. New York.
BELL AND HOWELL 170° CAMERAS— High
speed shuttles — high speed gear boxes — 400
and 1000 foot Bell & Howell magazines —
Bell & Howell tripods — motors. AKELEY
and DEBRIE CAMERAS. Akeley motors.
High speed motors. Sunshades, lenses and
Write or Wire
CAMERA EQUIPMENT. INC.
1600 Brc^i^way . New York City
Tel. Circle, 6-6080 Cable: Cinequip
16 and 35mm. EQUIPMENT— FOR SALE—
rent. Mitchell Bell & Howell — Akeley— -
Debrie. Write for prices. THE CAMER.V-
MART, INC., no West 40th St., New York
ONE 70MM FEARLESS silenced camera ; two
1000 ft. magazines ; 50, 75 and lOOmm F2
lenses. This eciuipment is in perfect me-
CAMERA EQUIPMENT, INC.
1600 Broadway New York City
Tel. Circle 6-5080 Cable: Cinequip
WE PAY CASH FOR YOUR USED CAMERA.
LABORATORY AND STUDIO EQUIPMENT.
Write, wire or cable
MOTION PICTURE CAMERA SUPPLY. INC.
723 Seventh Avenue, New York City
Cable Address : Cinecamera
WANTED: We pay cash for everything pho-
tographic. Send full information and low-
est cash prices. Hollywood Camera Ex-
change, 1600 Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood,
papers. These publish the time to ex-
pect large boats an(t. also give the
boats that are in dock. When shoot-
ing be careful to get people in the
scene. Human interest is what is
needed even in harbor films, and very
likable folk are these harbor people.
Cine cameras are simple, but the
amateur who is patient enough to ar-
range a story or theme before he
starts Kodachroming his harbor film
will use less film and have a better
picture to edit. Technical skill is not
as valuable as the power of observa-
tion and patience.
Keep Things Moving
In making a harbor film it is as
well to remember that you are mak-
ing a moving picture. This means
that not only is the film moving
through the camera but each scene
must contain some movement and not
too much sky and water. Therefore,
shooting must be done close to the
shore most of the time.
Long shots can be made occasional-
ly, if a figure, tree or boat is in the
foreground. This will give a sense
of depth to the scene and at the same
time frame the picture.
If the background is more than one
mile away use a Kodachrome haze
filter. This makes all colors warmer
and gives more detail in long shots.
The Kodachrome chart is an excellent
way of judging light values, but ow-
ing to the calculation necessary is not
as handy as an electric exposure
If the latter is used hold it down
toward the water and measure this
reflected light for long shots. Close
ups can be measured close up, as the
most popular meters are calibrated
for all colors including white and
It took the writer two years to
make his harbor film, and he en-
joyed every minute spent on the
(Upper left) Junior Model. On roller
with separate new type spring wire
support. 4 sizes from $2.50 to $6.00.
(Lower left) Model “F”. In metal case.
6 sizes. From $12.00 up.
(Below) Standard Challenger. Tripod
pivotally attached permits quick set up.
4 sizes from $15.00 up.
The thrill of showing bright, clear, pictures is
within the reach of every movie maker.
The Da-Lite Junior model has the finest light
reflective surface that monev can buv — vet it
can be had for as little as $2.50. The above
illustration will give you an idea of how much
brighter a picture is on a Da-Lite glass-beaded
screen than on any white surface. Millions of
tiny glass beads uniformly superimposed on
the screen fabric, by Da-Lite’s recently im-
proved process, reflect the maximum of light
and bring out in full detail the beauty which
your camera has captured and which your
projector would show if given a chance.
This Christmas, give your family the perfect
picture quality which only a Da-Lite glass-
beaded screen can offer! Styles for every
need and for every movie-maker on your list.
See Da-Lite Screens at your dealer’s or mail
the coupon below' for literature and prices!
MAIL COUPON NO
DA LITE JUHtOR
Da-Lite Screen Co., Inc.
2721 North Crawford Ave.
Send free literature and prices on Da-Lite Scree
takes in his work
is better justified
when he uses a
Mitchell Camera Corporation
665 NORTH ROBERTSON BOULEVARD
WEST HOLLYWOOD, CALIF.
Cable Address "MITCAMCO" Phone OXford 1051
BELL & HOWELL CO.. LTD., London. England MOTION PICTURE CAMERA SUPPLY. INC.. New York City
CLAUD C. CARTER. Sydney. Australia BOMBAY RADIO CO.. LTD.. Bombay. India
D. NAGASE & CO.. LTD.. Osaka. Japan H. NASSIBIAN. Cairo. Egypt